The findings of experimental studies suggest that the immune system plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the clinical importance of different immune cells in cardiovascular disease remains poorly characterized. In this study we investigated the association between CD8(+) T cells and carotid disease as well as development of cardiovascular disease events.
The study cohort comprised 700 subjects from the cardiovascular arm of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained at the 1991-1994 baseline investigation and stored at -140 °C, were thawed and the different CD8(+) T-cell populations analysed by flow cytometry. Baseline carotid intima-media thickness and stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography and clinical events were monitored through validated national registers.
Subjects with a high fraction of CD8(+) T cells were characterized by decreased cytokine release from activated leucocytes, metabolic signs of insulin resistance and increased incidence of coronary events; hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the second and third tertiles of CD8(+) T cells were 2.57 (1.16, 5.67) and 2.61 (1.19, 5,71), respectively, in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Correlations were found between the fraction of CD8(+) CD25(+) T cells and the degree of carotid stenosis (r = 0.11, P
New drug formulation--a sublingual tablet--was developed on the basis of human leukocyte interferon (HLI). Evaluation of antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of the new formulation of HLI in patients with influenza showed its efficacy. The drug shortened duration of intoxication and catarrhal syndrome, decreased rate of complications and restored interferon status. Obtained results showed that "Interferon tablets 4000 IU" can be used in complex treatment of patients with influenza.
Haemovigilance is defined as the collection of information on complications of transfusion, the analysis of the data, and suggestions for improvement in the transfusion service. A national haemovigilance system is of value in identifying possible areas in need of improvement in the national transfusion system. Haemovigilance becomes even more important if the system is used to compare the situation in one country with the situation in other countries, e.g. if the countries differ significantly in products used. The current study focuses on immunological transfusion complications, especially TRALI, as published in haemovigilance reports from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK.
In Norway immunological transfusion reactions occurred 96.7 times per 100 000 red cell (RBC) transfusion, 231.1 times per 100 000 thrombocyte (Trc) concentrate transfusion and five times per 100.000 transfusions of solvent detergent treated plasma (SD plasma). Denmark and the UK have similar rates of transfusion reactions to RBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but quite different for Trc (0.5 vs. 4.9 per 100 000). In 49% of reported TRALI the causative product is FFP, but no case of TRALI after SD plasma transfusion has been reported.
When considering all reports for immunological complications in Norway, the most striking is the very small number of reports related to SD plasma. Comparing data from Denmark and the UK shows a big difference in reactions caused by thrombocyte concentrates that may reflect different production methods in the two countries. TRALI is most often caused by FFP, but has never been reported after SD plasma transfusion. Heamovigilance data can be valuable in choosing the safest products available.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of potential chemotaxins C5a, interleukin 8 and tumour-necrosis factor alpha, and the peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) response in five patients having uncomplicated operations for rectal cancer. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital, Norway. SUBJECTS: Five patients, four men and one woman, median age 66 years (range 48-77) who were operated on for rectal cancer. INTERVENTION: Four had low anterior resections and total mesorectal excision (TME) and one patient had a diverting end sigmoidostomy because of local perirectal spread of the cancer and liver metastases. Blood samples were taken at the start of the operation; peroperatively after 1, 2, and 3 hours; postoperatively at 5, 8, and 24 hours, for analysis of potential chemotaxins. RESULTS: The number of PBL tripled between the start and end of the operation and declined to a slightly lower plateau between 5 and 24 hours. Peroperatively, the association of C5a with PBL increased six-fold resulting in a doubled concentration of C5a/PBL, whereas the corresponding concentration of C5a in plasma remained relatively constant. Postoperatively, the concentration of C5a associated with the PBL and in plasma fluctuated with the maximums being at 8 and 24 hours, respectively. In contrast to C5a in plasma, the concentration of cell-associated C5a correlated with number of PBL or polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN). The plasma concentration of IL-8 doubled during the operation, reached a six-fold maximum at 5 hours, and declined after 24 hours to twice the initial concentration. There were no correlations between plasma IL-8 and either number of PBL, plasma C5a, or PBL-associated C5a. No TNF alpha was detected in the plasma. CONCLUSION: Tissue trauma caused by uncomplicated excision of rectal cancer leads to leucocyte mobilisation peroperatively, probably partly by complement activation and subsequent generation and binding of the chemotaxin C5a to PBL. However, other chemotaxins may also play a role.