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17 records – page 1 of 2.

Bacteriological analysis of fresh produce in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75520
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 Aug 25;77(3):199-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-25-2002
Author
Gro S Johannessen
Semir Loncarevic
Hilde Kruse
Author Affiliation
Section for Food and Feed Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway. gro.johannessen@vetinst.no
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 Aug 25;77(3):199-204
Date
Aug-25-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agaricales
Anethum graveolens - microbiology
Bacteria - classification - isolation & purification
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Microbiology
Fruit - microbiology - standards
Humans
Lettuce - microbiology
Norway
Petroselinum - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Public Health
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Vegetables - microbiology - standards
Abstract
A total of 890 samples of fresh produce obtained from Norwegian markets were examined in order to assess the bacteriological quality of the products and their potential public health risk. The samples comprised lettuce, pre-cut salads, growing herbs, parsley and dill, mushrooms and strawberries. The samples were analysed for the presence of thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB), Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. Neither Salmonella spp. nor E. coli O157 were isolated. For all product groups included, TCB were isolated from a small proportion of samples. Three samples harboured L. monocytogenes; one of the isolates belonging to serogroup 1 (champignons) and two of the isolates belonging to serogroup 4 (Chinese leaves and strawberries). Staphylococci were isolated from a relatively large proportion of the samples of strawberries and mushrooms. However, only four isolates were identified as S. aureus (non-toxinogenic). By the use of PCR, the presence of Y. enterocolitica was indicated in a few of the samples of lettuce, whilst no positive samples were found using a culturing method. The study shows that the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria and TCB in the products analysed was quite low. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the type of products analysed may contain pathogenic bacteria and thereby represent a risk to the consumers in regard to food-borne diseases.
PubMed ID
12160079 View in PubMed
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A collaborative study on a Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161616
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Sep 15;118(2):201-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2007
Author
Hanne Rosenquist
Anja Bengtsson
Tina Beck Hansen
Author Affiliation
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Moerkhoej Bygade 19, 2860 Soeborg, Denmark. hrq@food.dtu.dk
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Sep 15;118(2):201-13
Date
Sep-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter coli - isolation & purification
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Clinical Laboratory Techniques - standards
Colony Count, Microbial
Denmark
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Humans
Lettuce - microbiology
Meat - microbiology
Milk - microbiology
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
A Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food has been elaborated (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007). Performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven European countries. The laboratories performed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses on samples of chicken meat, cut lettuce, and milk artificially inoculated with different concentrations including blank duplicates of one strain of Campylobacter coli (SLV-271) and one strain of Campylobacter jejuni (SLV-542). Expected concentrations (95% C.I.) (cfu g(-1) or ml(-1)) of both strains in matrices were 0.6-1.4 and 23-60 for qualitative detection, and 0.6-1.4; 23-60; and 420-1200 for semi-quantitative detection. For quantitative determination, the expected concentrations of C. jejuni/C. coli were 420-1200/580-1100; 2100-6000/6300-11,000; and 4100-11,000/53,000-97,000 cfu g(-1) or ml(-1). The qualitative and semi-quantitative techniques resulted in comparable detection. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the detection techniques was 98.6% (95% C.I.: 95.1-99.8%) and 82.8% (C.I.: 78.4-86.6%), respectively. The sensitivity was not influenced by food matrix (P=0.359), but was significantly lower for C. coli compared to C. jejuni (P=0.007) and for concentrations below 1.4 cfu g(-1) (P
PubMed ID
17761333 View in PubMed
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Efficacy of a commercial produce wash on bacterial contamination of lettuce in a food service setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182422
Source
J Food Prot. 2003 Dec;66(12):2359-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Sarah Smith
Mila Dunbar
Diana Tucker
Donald W Schaffner
Author Affiliation
Food Risk Analysis Initiative, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8520, USA.
Source
J Food Prot. 2003 Dec;66(12):2359-61
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - drug effects - growth & development
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Disinfectants - pharmacology
Disinfection - methods
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Microbiology
Food Services - standards
Humans
Lettuce - microbiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Many microorganisms (including a number of important foodborne pathogens) can be present on raw fruits and vegetables. Since these products are frequently eaten raw, any pathogens present represent a potential risk to the consumer. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a commercial produce wash with that of water for reducing the total bacterial population on lettuce when used by food service employees in university dining halls. Because this study was carried out in actual food service facilities during their daily operation, we used indigenous produce microflora instead of actual pathogens. Over the course of the study, more than 40 heads of lettuce were divided into thirds, and each section was analyzed for total plate count either before washing, after washing in water, or after washing in Victory produce wash. When initial contamination levels were > or = 100 CFU/g (n = 36 samples), reductions obtained with Victory produce wash (1.8 log CFU/g) were significantly larger (P = 0.0006) than those obtained with water (0.8 log CFU/g). Our results indicate that Victory produce wash is effective in reducing indigenous flora on lettuce during food service preparation. Our results also show that care must be taken in the analysis of microbial reduction data: only a slight reduction in total plate count (ca. 0.1 log CFU/g) and no significant difference in reductions (P = 0.84) were observed when all samples (irrespective of initial contamination level) were compared.
PubMed ID
14672238 View in PubMed
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Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for reducing microbial contamination on minimally-processed vegetables.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159055
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Mar 31;123(1-2):151-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-31-2008
Author
Maribel Abadias
Josep Usall
Márcia Oliveira
Isabel Alegre
Inmaculada Viñas
Author Affiliation
IRTA, Centre UdL-IRTA, XaRTA-Postharvest, 191 Rovira Roure, 25198-Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. isabel.abadias@irta.cat
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2008 Mar 31;123(1-2):151-8
Date
Mar-31-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Disinfectants - pharmacology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Escherichia coli O157 - drug effects - growth & development
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Handling - methods
Food Microbiology
Humans
Hydrogen Peroxide - pharmacology
Lettuce - microbiology
Listeria monocytogenes - drug effects - growth & development
Pectobacterium carotovorum - drug effects - growth & development
Salmonella - drug effects - growth & development
Temperature
Time Factors
Vegetables - microbiology
Abstract
Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and 'Four seasons' salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, 'Four seasons' salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, 'in situ', and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety.
PubMed ID
18237810 View in PubMed
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EHEC outbreak among staff at a children's hospital--use of PCR for verocytotoxin detection and PFGE for epidemiological investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75500
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Jan;132(1):43-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2004
Author
C. Welinder-Olsson
K. Stenqvist
M. Badenfors
A. Brandberg
K. Florén
M. Holm
L. Holmberg
E. Kjellin
S. Mårild
A. Studahl
B. Kaijser
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Bacteriology, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Jan;132(1):43-9
Date
Jan-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
DNA, Bacterial - analysis - genetics
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field - methods - standards
Epidemiologic Methods
Escherichia coli Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control - transmission
Escherichia coli O157 - classification - genetics
Feces - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food Poisoning - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Hospitals, Pediatric
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Lettuce - microbiology
Mass Screening - methods
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Personnel, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods - standards
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Serotyping
Shiga-Like Toxin I - genetics
Shiga-Like Toxin II - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This is the first report of a major foodborne outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in Sweden. It occurred among the nursing staff at a children's hospital with approximately 1600 employees. Contaminated lettuce was the most likely source of infection. Nine persons were culture-positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and verocytotoxin-positive by PCR and a further two were verocytotoxin-positive by PCR only. All 11 EHEC-positive individuals had attended a party for approximately 250 staff members, which was held at the hospital. In a questionnaire 37 persons stated that they had symptoms consistent with EHEC infection during the weeks after the party. There was no evidence of secondary transmission from staff to patients. The value of PCR as a sensitive and fast method for diagnosis is discussed in this paper. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to ascertain that staff members were infected by the same clone, and that two patients with E. coli O157 infection were not.
PubMed ID
14979588 View in PubMed
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival and growth on lettuce is altered by the presence of epiphytic bacteria.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166874
Source
J Food Prot. 2006 Oct;69(10):2329-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Michael B Cooley
Diana Chao
Robert E Mandrell
Author Affiliation
Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, California 94710, USA. mcooley@pw.usda.gov
Source
J Food Prot. 2006 Oct;69(10):2329-35
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiosis
Colony Count, Microbial
Consumer Product Safety
Cupriavidus - physiology
Enterobacter - physiology
Escherichia coli O157 - growth & development
Food Contamination - analysis - prevention & control
Food Microbiology
Humans
Lettuce - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 can survive in low numbers in soil and on plants. Occasionally, conditions may occur in the field that lead to contamination of produce. Survival of enteric pathogens in the field is controlled to a certain extent by complex interactions with indigenous soilborne and seedborne epiphytes. Identifying these interactions may assist in developing strategies to improve produce safety. Two epiphytes were isolated from pathogen-contaminated plants that interact differently with E. coli O157:H7. Wausteria paucula enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 six-fold on lettuce foliage grown from coinoculated lettuce seed. In contrast, Enterobacter asburiae decreased E. coli O157:H7 survival 20- to 30-fold on foliage. Competition also occurred in the rhizosphere and in plant exudate. This competition may be the result of E. asburiae utilization of several of the carbon and nitrogen substrates typically present in exudate and also used by E. coli O157:H7. Hence, competition observed on the plant may involve one or more nutrients provided by the plant. In contrast, a different mechanism may exist between E. coli O157:H7 and W. paucula since commensalism was only observed on foliage, not in the rhizosphere or plant exudate. Good agricultural practices that encourage the growth of competing bacteria, like E. asburiae, may reduce the incidence of produce contamination.
PubMed ID
17066909 View in PubMed
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Hospital outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with a rare phage type--Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209181
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1997 Mar 1;23(5):33-6; discussion 36-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-1997

Iceberg lettuce as suggested source of a nationwide outbreak caused by two Salmonella serotypes, Newport and Reading, in Finland in 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133770
Source
J Food Prot. 2011 Jun;74(6):1035-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Taru Lienemann
Taina Niskanen
Sandra Guedes
Anja Siitonen
Markku Kuusi
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Bacteriology Unit, PL 30, 00271 Helsinki, Finland. taru.lienemann@thl.fi
Source
J Food Prot. 2011 Jun;74(6):1035-40
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Humans
Lettuce - microbiology
Male
Middle Aged
Salmonella - classification - isolation & purification
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology
Serotyping
Young Adult
Abstract
A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotypes Newport and Reading occurred between 17 October and 28 November 2008 in Finland. A total of 77 culture-confirmed Salmonella Newport and 30 Salmonella Reading cases, including one case with a double infection, were reported. All strains isolated from the patients were subtyped using serotyping, microbial resistance profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Here, the PFGE patterns of the studied Salmonella Newport strains were identical, whereas four different PFGE profiles were found among the Salmonella Reading strains. Two elderly patients died within 2 weeks of the onset of symptoms. Three geographical clusters of cases with an epidemiological link were identified. The traceback investigation suggested that the factor connecting the cases was ready-chopped iceberg lettuce available for mass catering use. However, none of the tested food, environmental samples, or the samples taken from the staff of the processing plant contained Salmonella bacteria. Tracing back to outbreak sources with a short shelf life can be complex.
PubMed ID
21669088 View in PubMed
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[Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269239
Source
Laeknabladid. 2015 Jun;101(6):313-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Karl G Kristinsson
Franklín Georgsson
Source
Laeknabladid. 2015 Jun;101(6):313-9
Date
Jun-2015
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Anti-Infective Agents - adverse effects
Cattle
Commerce
Consumer Product Safety
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Food Contamination
Food Supply
Foodborne Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Lettuce - microbiology
Poultry - microbiology
Red Meat - microbiology
Risk factors
Transportation
Abstract
Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest.
PubMed ID
26158536 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.