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A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300956
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Ilse A C Arnoldussen
Valter Sundh
Kristoffer Bäckman
Silke Kern
Svante Östling
Kaj Blennow
Henrik Zetterberg
Ingmar Skoog
Amanda J Kiliaan
Deborah R Gustafson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1325-1335
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Dementia - blood - epidemiology - pathology
Fasting
Female
Humans
Independent living
Leptin - blood
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
Adiposity measured in mid- or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.
We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.
924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.
Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (
PubMed ID
29758945 View in PubMed
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Peripheral Immune Mediators: Results from Two Nationwide Danish Pediatric Cohorts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285851
Source
Nutrients. 2017 Apr 06;9(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-06-2017
Author
Steffen U Thorsen
Christian B Pipper
Kristin Skogstrand
Flemming Pociot
Jannet Svensson
Source
Nutrients. 2017 Apr 06;9(4)
Date
Apr-06-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood - diagnosis
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Immunologic Factors - blood
Infant, Newborn
Interleukin-8 - blood
Leptin - blood
Male
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
(1) Background: We aimed to examine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was related to the peripheral immunological and inflammatory signature both at birth, and in newly diagnosed patients with childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their healthy controls; (2) Methods: The birth cohort consisted of 470 patients and 500 healthy controls. Dried blood samples were collected from the neonates in the period 1981-1999. The newly diagnosed cohort consisted of 460 patients and 453 siblings. Serum samples were collected in the period 1997-2005. A variety of peripheral immune mediators were measured and compared to total 25(OH)D levels (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3). For each immune mediator, the relative change (RC) in the mean level was modeled by robust log-normal regression and correction for multiple testing was performed; (3) Results: Two associations were identified; there was a negative association between 25(OH)D (10 nmol/L increase) and leptin (RC (95% confidence interval (CI)), 0.98 (0.96; 1.00)), and a positive association between 25(OH)D (10 nmol/L increase) and the chemokine, chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand (CXCL) 8 (RC (95% CI), 1.07 (1.01; 1.13)); (4) Conclusion: CXCL8 and leptin have significant associations with levels of 25(OH)D in the newly diagnosed cohort. These results do not indicate a strong influence of 25(OH)D on the peripheral immunological or inflammatory signature.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28383493 View in PubMed
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Adipokines and incident type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian [corrected] population: the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93453
Source
Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1410-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Ley Sylvia H
Harris Stewart B
Connelly Philip W
Mamakeesick Mary
Gittelsohn Joel
Hegele Robert A
Retnakaran Ravi
Zinman Bernard
Hanley Anthony J G
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1410-5
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipokines - blood
Adult
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Canada - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Insulin Resistance
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - complications
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and serum amyloid A (SAA), individually or in combinations, with risk of incident type 2 diabetes in a Aboriginal Canadian [corrected] population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Of the 606 Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project cohort subjects who were free of diabetes at baseline, 540 (89.1%) participated in 10-year follow-up assessments. Concentrations of fasting adiponectin, leptin, CRP, IL-6, SAA, and covariates were measured at baseline. Fasting glucose and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were obtained at baseline and follow-up to determine incident type 2 diabetes, defined as clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes or as fasting plasma glucose > or =7.0 mmol/l or 2-h postload plasma glucose > or =11.1 mmol/l at follow-up. RESULTS: Low adiponectin, high leptin, and low adiponectin-to-leptin ratio at baseline were associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance (odds ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.48-0.83], 1.50 [1.02-2.21], and 0.54 [0.37-0.77], respectively). When the models were additionally adjusted for waist circumference or BMI, however, only low adiponectin remained significantly associated with increased incident diabetes (0.68 [0.51-0.90]). Combinations of leptin, CRP, IL-6, and/or SAA with adiponectin, assessed using either the ratio or joint effects, did not improve diabetes prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Low baseline adiponectin is associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes independent of leptin, CRP, IL-6, SAA, and metabolic syndrome variables including obesity.
Notes
Erratum In: Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug;31(8):1713
PubMed ID
18339973 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adiponectin concentration and insulin indicators following overfeeding in identical twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87040
Source
J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Feb;31(2):132-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Ukkola O.
Terán-García M.
Tremblay A.
Després J-P
Bouchard C.
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Feb;31(2):132-7
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Insulin - blood - metabolism
Insulin Resistance
Leptin - blood
Male
Overnutrition - blood - metabolism
Twins, Monozygotic - blood - metabolism
Abstract
Low adiponectin levels have been associated with high body mass index, low insulin sensitivity, and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between changes in serum adiponectin concentration and adiposity, glucose, and insulin in response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins and to calculate the twin resemblance in serum adiponectin concentrations. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Twenty-four sedentary young men [mean (+/-SD) age, 21+/-2 yr] who constituted 12 pairs of healthy identical twins were studied for metabolic and adiponectin changes in response to overfeeding. INTERVENTION: Subjects were overfed by 84,000 kcal over a 100-day period. OUTCOME MEASURES: The overfeeding study provides an opportunity to examine the relationships between adiponectin and changes in body weight, adiposity, plasma glucose and insulin. RESULTS: Serum adiponectin concentration correlated positively with body weight (r= 0.41, p=0.05) at baseline but not with indicators of adiposity or with visceral fat. No relationship existed between baseline adiponectin concentration and body weight or adiposity gains with overfeeding. However, serum adiponectin decreased significantly by -2.35+/-0.48 microg/ml (p=0.001) in response to overfeeding. Baseline adiponectin levels correlated negatively with changes in plasma fasting glucose levels (r=-0.53, p=0.01) and homeostasis model assessment index (r=-0.41, p=0.05), independently of fat mass. The intrapair coefficient for twin resemblance (r=0.75, p=0.001) strongly suggests that baseline serum adiponectin concentration is a familial trait. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that adiponectin concentration is a familial trait in normal-weight individuals, that it decreases when challenged by positive energy balance, and that its overfeeding-induced variations are correlated with glucose and insulin levels.
PubMed ID
18362504 View in PubMed
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Adipose tissue resistin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81199
Source
Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):977-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Dostalova Ivana
Kunesova Marie
Duskova Jaroslava
Papezova Hana
Nedvidkova Jara
Author Affiliation
Institute of Endocrinology, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Neuroendocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic. idostalova@endo.cz
Source
Nutrition. 2006 Oct;22(10):977-83
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - secretion
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - blood - metabolism
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Leptin - blood
Malnutrition - metabolism - physiopathology
Microdialysis - methods
Resistin - metabolism
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Resistin is a specific fat-derived hormone that affects fuel homeostasis and insulin action in rodents. However, its role in human physiology and pathophysiologic conditions, such as malnutrition, remains uncertain. METHODS: To enhance understanding of the role of resistin in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), we measured plasma resistin levels in 13 women with a restrictive type of AN and in 16 healthy age-matched women (control). Further, we measured resistin levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of eight women from the AN group and eight women from the control group with an in vivo microdialysis technique (CMA/107 pump, CMA/60 catheters, CMA Microdialysis AB, Solna, Sweden). RESULTS: Body mass index, percentage of body fat, fasting plasma leptin and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance were severely decreased in patients with AN compared with the control group. Plasma resistin levels were significantly decreased in patients with AN (P
PubMed ID
16889937 View in PubMed
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Age at adiposity rebound is associated with fat mass in young adult males-the GOOD study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118817
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Claes Ohlsson
Mattias Lorentzon
Ensio Norjavaara
Jenny M Kindblom
Author Affiliation
Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49404
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipose Tissue - physiopathology
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Growth Charts
Humans
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Puberty - physiology
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult
Abstract
Age at adiposity rebound (AR) is associated with obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of age at AR in adult fat mass, fat distribution and pubertal timing for a Swedish cohort.
This is a retrospective cohort study. Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based GOOD (Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants) study (n=573). Body composition was analysed using dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography at 18-20 years of age. Age and BMI at AR were calculated using pediatric growth charts and AR was defined as the lowest BMI between 3 and 9 years of age.
Subjects were divided into early (age at AR below 5.4 years of age), middle (age at AR 5.4 to 6.8 years of age) and late (age at AR after 6.8 years of age) age at AR tertiles. Subjects in the early age at AR tertile had higher young adult BMI (+8%), whole body fat mass (+34%) and amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (+61%) than the subjects in the middle and late tertiles (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23166661 View in PubMed
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Androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites are associated with metabolic risk factors in men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84904
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;92(11):4130-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Vandenput Liesbeth
Mellström Dan
Lorentzon Mattias
Swanson Charlotte
Karlsson Magnus K
Brandberg John
Lönn Lars
Orwoll Eric
Smith Ulf
Labrie Fernand
Ljunggren Osten
Tivesten Asa
Ohlsson Claes
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, Gothenburg University, SE-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;92(11):4130-7
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen - anatomy & histology
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Aging - physiology
Androgens - blood
Arm - anatomy & histology
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cohort Studies
Glucuronates - blood
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - blood
Humans
Insulin - blood
Leg - anatomy & histology
Leptin - blood
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sweden
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
CONTEXT: Androgens are associated with metabolic risk factors in men. However, the independent impact of androgens and androgen metabolites on metabolic risk factors in men is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the predictive value of serum levels of androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites for metabolic risk factors. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two Swedish cohorts (1,068 young adult and 1,001 elderly men). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured correlation of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and glucuronidated androgen metabolites with fat mass, fat distribution, serum lipids, and insulin resistance. RESULTS: Both DHT and T were negatively associated with different measures of fat mass in both cohorts (P
PubMed ID
17711928 View in PubMed
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Anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary factors associated with dropout in overweight and obese postmenopausal women engaged in a 6-month weight loss programme: a MONET study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147225
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr;103(8):1230-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Virginie Messier
Jessy Hayek
Antony D Karelis
Lyne Messier
Eric Doucet
Denis Prud'homme
Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
Irene Strychar
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. virginie.messier@ircm.qc.ca
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr;103(8):1230-5
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet, Reducing
Female
Ghrelin - blood
Humans
Insulin - blood
Leptin - blood
Life Style
Middle Aged
Obesity - rehabilitation
Ontario
Overweight - psychology - rehabilitation
Postmenopause
Resistance Training - methods
Sedentary lifestyle
Self Concept
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to examine anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary factors associated with dropout in a 6-month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing body weight by 10 %. The study sample included 137 sedentary, overweight and obese postmenopausal women, participating in a weight loss intervention that consisted of either energy restriction (ER) or ER with resistance training (ER+RT). Anthropometric (BMI, percent lean body mass, percent fat mass, visceral adipose tissue and waist circumference), metabolic (total energy expenditure, RMR, insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin), psychosocial (body esteem, self-esteem, stress, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, quality of life, self-efficacy, perceived benefits for controlling weight and perceived risk) and dietary (3-d food record) variables were measured. Thirty subjects out of 137 dropped out of the weight loss programme (22 %), with no significant differences in dropout rates between those in the ER and the ER+RT groups. Overall, amount of weight loss was significantly lower in dropouts than in completers ( - 1.7 (sd 3.5) v. - 5.6 (sd 4.3) kg, P
PubMed ID
19930768 View in PubMed
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An X-chromosome scan reveals a locus for fat distribution in chromosome region Xp21-22.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190043
Source
Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1989-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
R Arlen Price
Wei-Dong Li
Robin Kilker
Author Affiliation
Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6140, USA. arlen@bgl.psycha.upenn.edu
Source
Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1989-91
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
African Continental Ancestry Group
Body Composition - genetics
Body Constitution - genetics
Body mass index
Chromosome Mapping
Europe - ethnology
Female
Finland
France
Genetic Linkage
Genotype
Humans
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - genetics
Phenotype
United States
X Chromosome
Abstract
Several groups have completed autosomal genome scans for human obesity, but only two have examined the X chromosome. A French group reported linkage of BMI to Xp and Xq markers, and a Finnish group reported linkage of BMI to Xq. We scanned the X chromosome in two cohorts, 190 European-American families (940 members) and 43 African-American families (208 members). We examined five correlated obesity phenotypes, BMI, body fat percentage, hip and waist circumferences, and plasma leptin concentration. We also examined leptin resistance (leptin/BMI) and fat patterning (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). Variables were adjusted for age within generation, race, and sex. We genotyped 20 markers with average spacing of 10 cM and no interval >22 cM and conducted nonparametric analyses. Suggestive linkage was found for WHR only. Linkage was supported in both family sets, and support was especially strong for females. Z scores for analyses of female phenotypes were 2.69, 1.73, and 2.37 (P = 0.0036, 0.0418, and 0.0089) for African-Americans, European-Americans, and the combined sample, respectively. The peaks were 51-73 cM from the p terminus, 14-34 cM distal of the French report in Xp22. Our results suggest that a quantitative trait locus influencing fat distribution in women may lie in chromosome region Xp21-22; however, the linked interval is large and differs substantially from that of the French and Finnish groups. Given the positive but divergent results, it would be worthwhile for others to examine the X chromosome.
PubMed ID
12031991 View in PubMed
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APOC1 T45S polymorphism is associated with reduced obesity indices and lower plasma concentrations of leptin and apolipoprotein C-I in aboriginal Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148109
Source
J Lipid Res. 2010 Apr;51(4):843-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Piya Lahiry
Henian Cao
Matthew R Ban
Rebecca L Pollex
Mary Mamakeesick
Bernard Zinman
Stewart B Harris
Anthony J G Hanley
Murray W Huff
Philip W Connelly
Robert A Hegele
Author Affiliation
Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
Source
J Lipid Res. 2010 Apr;51(4):843-8
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apolipoprotein C-I - blood - genetics
Body Composition
Canada
Child
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic Association Studies
Humans
Hypertriglyceridemia - epidemiology
Indians, North American - genetics
Leptin - blood
Male
Obesity - blood - genetics
Obesity, Abdominal - epidemiology
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prevalence
Sex Characteristics
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
Apolipoprotein (apo) C-I is a constituent of chylomicrons, very low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein. The role of apo C-I in human metabolism is incompletely defined. We took advantage of a naturally occurring amino acid polymorphism that is present in aboriginal North Americans, namely apo C-I T45S. We assessed the hypothesis that metabolic traits, including obesity-related and lipoprotein-related traits, would differ between carriers and noncarriers of apo C-I T45S. A genotyping assay was developed for APOC1 T45S and genotypes were determined in a sample of 410 Canadian Oji-Cree subjects. The allele frequency of the apo C-I S45 allele was approximately 8% in this sample. We observed the apo C-I S45 allele was significantly associated with 1) lower percent body fat (P
Notes
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