The link between risk-taking behavior in various aspects of life has long been an area of debate among economists and psychologists. Using an extensive data set from Denmark, this study provides an empirical investigation of the link between risky driving and risk taking in other aspects of life, including risk-taking behavior in financial and labor-market decisions. Specifically, we establish significant positive correlations between individuals' risk-taking behavior in car driving and their risk-taking behavior in financial and labor-market decisions. However, we find that the strength of these correlations vary significantly between genders, and across risk decisions. These correlations and their differences across genders get stronger when we construct more "homogenous" groups by restricting our sample to those individuals with at least some stock-market participation. Overall, the empirical results in this study suggest that risk-taking behavior in various aspects of life can be associated, and our results corroborate previous evidence on the link between individuals' risk preferences across various aspects of life. This implies that individuals' driving behavior, which is commonly unobservable, can be more fully understood using observable labor market and financial decisions of individuals.
To investigate whether there are differences in participation in leisure activities between children with and without disabilities in Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands and how much personal and environmental factors explain leisure performance.
In a cross-sectional analytic design, the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, CAPE, was performed with 278 children with disabilities and 599 children without disabilities aged 6-17 years. A one-way between-groups ANOVA explored the differences in participation between the countries. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis assessed if age, gender, educational level, living area and country of residence explained the variance in participation.
Scandinavian children with disabilities participated in more activities with higher frequency compared to Dutch children. The strongest predictor was country of residence. For children without disabilities, differences existed in informal activities, the strongest predictor was gender.
Differences in school- and support systems between the countries seem to influence patterns of participation, affecting children with disabilities most.
Physically active occupations with high-energy expenditure may lead to lower motivation to exercise during leisure time, while the reverse can be hypothesized for sedentary occupations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of changing occupational activity level on exercise behavior.
Data on occupational physical activity and leisure time exercise were taken from a population-based cohort, with surveys completed in 2010 and 2014. Using data on those employed in both years, two trajectories were analyzed: (i) participants who changed from sedentary to active occupations and (ii) participants who changed from active to sedentary occupations. Exercise was reported in hours per week and changes from 2010 to 2014 were categorized as decreased, increased or stable. Associations were expressed as ORs and 95% CIs adjusting for age, gender and education.
Data were available for 12 969 participants (57% women, aged 45 ± 9 years, 57% highly educated). Relative to participants whose occupational activity was stable, participants who changed to active occupations (n = 549) were more likely to decrease exercise (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02-1.47) and those who changed to sedentary occupations (n = 373) more likely to increase exercise levels (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.97-1.52).
People changing from sedentary to active occupations compensate by exercising less, and those changing from physically active to sedentary occupations seem to compensate by exercising more in their leisure time. When developing and evaluating interventions to reduce occupational sedentary behavior or to promote exercise, mutual influences on physical activity of different contexts should be considered.
Objectives: Assimilative and accommodative coping strategies have hardly been studied in relation to leisure activities in old age. We investigated whether tenacious goal pursuit (TGP) and flexible goal adjustment (FGA) influence the association between physical performance and participation in leisure activities. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 187 community-dwelling people aged 79 to 93 years. TGP, FGA, and leisure activity participation were asked with questionnaires. Physical performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results: TGP moderated the relationship between physical performance and leisure activity participation. Despite low physical performance, people with high TGP had close to mean level of leisure activity participation, whereas low TGP was associated with very little activity. Most notably, people without high TGP had fewer outdoor activities and group activities outside home. Similar effects were not found for FGA. Discussion: Persistency, rather than flexibility, in goal pursuit appears to help older people be active in their leisure time.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical fitness, and physical activity in older patients after recent discharge from hospital. One hundred fifteen independent-living older adults (ages 70-92 years) were included. HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), and physical fitness (Senior Fitness Test) were measured 2-4 weeks after discharge. Higher levels of physical activity and physical fitness were correlated with higher self-reported HRQOL. Although cause and effect cannot be determined from this study, the results suggest that a particular focus on the value of physical activity and physical fitness while in hospital and when discharged from hospital may be important to encourage patients to actively preserve independence and HRQOL. It may be especially important to target those with lower levels of physical activity, poorer physical fitness, and multiple comorbidities.
Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc., independently of level of physical activity. Availability of recreational green space is associated with physical activity, but is unknown in relation to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study is to examine the association between availability of green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population.
The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including sedentary leisure time. Objective measures of density green were calculated for each respondent using Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel regression analysis, taking neighbourhood and individual factors into account, was performed.
65% of the respondents were sedentary in leisure time for more than 3h/day. We found that poor availability of forest and recreational facilities in the neighbourhood is associated with more sedentary leisure time; OR: 1.11 (95% CL: 1.04-1.19), after adjusting for individual, and neighbourhood, level characteristics.
Among adult inhabitants, sedentary leisure time of more than 3h/day was more frequent in neighbourhoods with less green surroundings. Intervention efforts may benefit from emphasising the importance of having recreations options in residential areas to provide alternatives to sedentary activities.
Aims: Leisure activity helps people engage with life, and it promotes health and well-being as we age. This study investigated whether individuals with active jobs (high psychological demands, high control) in mid-life were more active during leisure time in old age compared with those with less active jobs. Methods: Two individually linked Swedish surveys were used (N=776) with 23 years of follow-up. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: Having an active job in mid-life was associated with greater engagement in intellectual/cultural, social and physical activity in old age, even when leisure activity in mid-life was taken into account. Conclusions: The results suggest that active jobs in mid-life may be replaced by active leisure during retirement. Active job conditions may promote engagement in society in old age, which in turn may have positive health consequences.
The purpose of this quantitative diary study was to investigate daily vigor and exhaustion using a person-centered approach. The study also investigated whether and how experiences of vigor and exhaustion relate to a state of being recovered. A total of 256 Finnish employees filled in a diary questionnaire during five consecutive workdays. Vigor and exhaustion showed strong negative interdependence within and between days. However, by applying a person-centered analysis, we were able to differentiate three groups with meaningful variation in vigor and exhaustion. The groups were labeled as Constantly vigorous (n = 179), Concurrently vigorous and exhausted (n = 30) and Constantly exhausted (n = 43). The vigor-exhaustion groups were also characterized by their recovery experiences: The Constantly vigorous employees recovered well from work strain during the workweek whereas the Constantly exhausted group recovered poorly. Overall, while the results indicate that, typically, vigor and exhaustion are exclusive experiences, it is also possible for them to be experienced simultaneously from day to day at the moderate levels. Thus, positive and negative experiences may co-occur.
The basis of self-perceived physical competence is built in childhood and school personnel have an important role in this developmental process. We investigated the association between initial self-perceived physical competence and reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) longitudinally in 10-, 12-, and 15-year-old children.
This longitudinal follow-up study comprises pupils from an elementary school cohort (N = 1346) in the city of Turku, Finland (175,000 inhabitants). The self-perceived physical competence (fitness and appearance) and LTPA data were collected with questionnaires. The full longitudinal data were available from 571 pupils based on repeated studies at the ages of 10, 12, and 15 years in 2004, 2006, and 2010. We analyzed the association of self-perceived physical competence and LTPA using regression models.
Self-perceived physical competence was positively associated with LTPA at all ages (10 years p
The long-term effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on job strain have not been assessed in a large prospective population-based cohort study.
To examine the relationship between the LTPA and the prevalence of job strain.
The participants were 861 full-time employees (406 men and 455 women), aged 24-39 years in 2001, from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. LTPA was assessed using a self-report questionnaire in 1992 and in 2001. The participants were grouped into four categories according to tertiles of LTPA index at two time points: persistently active, increasingly active, decreasingly active and persistently inactive. Job strain was measured in 2001 by indicators of job demands and job control.
Baseline LTPA was inversely associated with job strain (P