In a large, community-based cardiovascular disease prevention study in Eastern Finland, independent random population samples were surveyed in 1972, 1977 and 1982. The leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed. In men and women aged 30-59, the proportion with high LTPA increased from 1972 to 1982 by approximately one half (p less than 0.001), whereas that of high OPA decreased during the same period (p less than 0.001). In both sexes, high overall physical activity fell from 1972 to 1977 (p less than 0.001), but no more from 1977 to 1982. The proportion of entirely sedentary remained stable. Education, income and younger age showed a positive, body mass index, smoking and OPA a graded, negative association with high LTPA in 1972 and 1982. Significant (p less than 0.001) differences in 10-year trends of changes in LTPA were observed: men and women with low education or income increased LTPA more than those with high education and income. Socioeconomic factors, such as income and education, appear to have lost importance as determinants of population-wide exercise, whereas the clustering of low physical activity with overweight and smoking has increased.
Norwegian adolescents currently drink and smoke less on average than previous cohorts. Based on cross-sectional survey data, the individual and familial characteristics of 15-year-old non-users and users of alcohol and tobacco were compared to identify correlates to abstinence.
The survey was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Service. The sample consisted of 3107 adolescents from a 2011 school-based survey, of which 848 (27.3%) did not drink alcohol nor use tobacco. Associations with leisure time activities, risk perceptions, parenting style and social factors were analysed by logistic regression.
Most of the non-drinkers were also non-users of tobacco. Abstainers (neither alcohol nor tobacco use) tended to have less unorganized and more hobby-related leisure time activities, higher risk perceptions for smoking, and monitoring or emotionally supportive parents. They more rarely reported close relationships with their best friend and were more likely to report lower occurrences of drinking and smoking among friends or siblings.
Differences in perceived parenting styles and a lower degree of unorganized leisure in the abstainer group points to monitoring and closer emotional ties between parents and children as important factors in adolescent abstinence. An implication of these results is that promoting hobby-based activities might be a useful strategy for preventing alcohol and tobacco use in young people.
The proportion of individuals with dementia is increasing in all kinds of institutions. Specialised day hospitals are now being developed as an alternative to long term care for the demented. Twelve day hospital wards, with 312 individuals suffering from dementia, were included in a study aiming to assess functional abilities and frequencies of participation in different activities. Eighty-nine per cent of the day hospital patients could be classified as having a dementia disease. Seventy-eight per cent of the population were dependent on some kind of help from a caregiver in the performance of ADL activities. The most common occupations that could be seen in the programmes were physical activities, entertainment, and personal care activities. The activities were often undertaken as large group activities, often including more than ten patients. The functional abilities that characterise the population are comparable with those of the population living in pensioners' service blocks with full board.
All 291 fatal accidents (510 persons on board, 318 drowned) in water traffic in Finland in 1986-1988 were investigated by specific teams. Only some data of this extensive investigation are presented in this study. Staggering and falling in boat because of drunkenness, falling over and sinking of boat were the main causes of getting into water of the people aboard. Only 3.5% of the drowned had used life jackets and 9.7% of them could not swim. The reduced ability to swim because of alcohol and the exhaustion were in about half of the drowned the actual cause and the cold water in one third the background factor for drowning. The results indicate that fatal accidents in water traffic are a major problem of males (95.9%) and give important information for countermeasures.
This research uses four nationally representative samples of time diary data, spanning almost 30 yr, that are fused with energy expenditure information to enumerate the median daily duration of moderate or vigorous effort activity, quantify the prevalence of Canadians age 65 yr and older who are meeting recommended daily levels of physical activity, and explore the factors affecting rates of active living. Results indicate that 41.1% of older Canadians met recommended levels of physical activity in 1992, 40.6% in 1998, 43.5% in 2005, and 39.6% in 2010. Both rates of active living and daily duration of aerobic activity exhibit significant differences among sociodemographic groups, with age, sex, activity limitation, urban-rural, and season exhibiting the most significant influences. This study illustrates the potential for time diary data to provide detailed surveillance of physical activity patterns, active aging research, and program development, as well.
OBJECTIVE: To describe independence in personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), and frequency of social/lifestyle activities in a population-based sample of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm. DESIGN: Population-based survey. SETTING: Data collection in home environment. SUBJECTS: One hundred and sixty-six people with multiple sclerosis. INTERVENTIONS: Data were collected using measurements and structured interviews. MAIN MEASURES: Independence in ADL was assessed by the Barthel Index; independence in personal and instrumental ADL by the Katz Extended ADL Index; and frequency of social/lifestyle activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. RESULTS: The mean age was 51 +/- 12 years in the included 166 people with multiple sclerosis, of whom 71% (n = 118) were women. Fifty-two per cent (n = 85) were independent in personal ADL, 30% (n = 50) in instrumental ADL, and 35% (n = 57) had normal frequency of social/lifestyle activities. Most frequently affected ADL items were cleaning indoors and outdoors transportation (62%, n = 102) and the social/lifestyle items of household maintenance (59%, n = 97), walking outside (59%, n = 97), heavy housework (61%, n = 100), and gardening (68%, n = 112). CONCLUSIONS: ADL and social/lifestyle activities were affected in two-thirds of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm. The most affected items were items that could be classified as mobility-related and physically demanding, underlining the importance of developing and using evidence-based exercise treatments and rehabilitation to increase independence in people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm.
The ageing of the labour force and falling employment rates have forced policy makers in industrialized countries to find means of increasing the well-being of older workers and of lengthening their work careers.
To longitudinally study the relationship between activity and functional capacity and the well-being of ageing workers.
Follow-up study to that carried out by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1981-97 (n = 3817). Activity level was measured using various free-time activities, and functional capacity was measured through daily-life activities. The measure of well-being included items with both positive and negative affects. The associations between activity, functional capacity and well-being were analysed by general linear models with repeated measures.
Activity level and functional capacity had a strong positive effect (the effects of one unit increase were 0.32 and 0.30, respectively) on well-being. They were also interdependent. The impact of activity level in maintaining well-being became 31% greater during the follow-up, whereas the effect of functional capacity diminished by 17%.
The results of the study indicate that both involvement in activities and functional capacity have an important, partly compensatory role in maintaining the well-being of ageing workers.