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Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108631
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Sep 4;61(35):8349-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-4-2013
Author
William D Price
Lynne Underhill
Author Affiliation
12818 Wolfsville Road, Smithsburg, Maryland 21783, United States.
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Sep 4;61(35):8349-55
Date
Sep-4-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed - analysis
Canada
Food Analysis - methods
Food Safety - methods
Food, Genetically Modified
Humans
Legislation, Food
Nutrition Policy
Plants, Genetically Modified - chemistry
Risk assessment
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration
Abstract
With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.
PubMed ID
23865444 View in PubMed
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[Can health claims made on food be scientifically substantiated? Review on satiety and weight management]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89551
Source
Laeknabladid. 2009 Mar;95(3):195-200
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Gunnarsdottir Ingibjorg
Due Annette
Karhunen Leila
Lyly Marika
Author Affiliation
ingigun@landspitali.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2009 Mar;95(3):195-200
Date
Mar-2009
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Consumer Product Safety - legislation & jurisprudence
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
European Union
Evidence-Based Medicine
Food Labeling - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Regulation
Humans
Legislation, Food
Nutrition Policy
Nutritive Value
Obesity - diet therapy - physiopathology
Satiation
Treatment Outcome
Weight Loss
Abstract
Obesity is becoming an increasing health problem and results when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Food has a crucial role in weight management. The new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims permits the use of weight regulation and satiety related health claims on foods, if they are based on generally accepted scientific evidence. In this review the current knowledge on food properties, that have been proposed to affect satiety and/or energy expenditure and thus might be useful in weight control are considered, as part of the project "Substantiation of weight regulation and satiety related health claims on foods" funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. At this point the scientific evidence of the short term effects of dietary fibers and proteins in relation to satiety seems to be convincing. However, it might be challenging to make product specific satiety and weight management claims as the dose response is not always known. On the other hand two step health claims might be applied, for example rich in dietary fibre - dietary fibre can increase satiety or rich in protein - protein can increase satiety.
PubMed ID
19318712 View in PubMed
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Source
J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1221S-7S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Mary R L'abbé
Lydia Dumais
Eunice Chao
Beth Junkins
Author Affiliation
Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. mary_labbe@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1221S-7S
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Consumer Product Safety
Dietary Supplements
Food Labeling - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Health Food - standards
Humans
Legislation, Food
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Abstract
Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided.
PubMed ID
18492861 View in PubMed
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