A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.
Recent emphasis within policy circles has been on transparent communication with consumers about food risk management decisions and practices. As a consequence, it is important to develop best practice regarding communication with the public about how food risks are managed. In the current study, the provision of information about regulatory enforcement, proactive risk management, scientific uncertainty and risk variability were manipulated in an experiment designed to examine their impact on consumer perceptions of food risk management quality. In order to compare consumer reactions across different cases, three food hazards were selected (mycotoxins on organically grown food, pesticide residues, and a genetically modified potato). Data were collected from representative samples of consumers in Germany, Greece, Norway and the UK. Scores on the "perceived food risk management quality" scale were subjected to a repeated-measures mixed linear model. Analysis points to a number of important findings, including the existence of cultural variation regarding the impact of risk communication strategies-something which has obvious implications for pan-European risk communication approaches. For example, while communication of uncertainty had a positive impact in Germany, it had a negative impact in the UK and Norway. Results also indicate that food risk managers should inform the public about enforcement of safety laws when communicating scientific uncertainty associated with risks. This has implications for the coordination of risk communication strategies between risk assessment and risk management organizations.
Dietary folic acid (FA) intakes were analyzed in random samples of 302 young women (aged 18 to 34) and 337 seniors (aged 65 to 74) residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). The analyses were an attempt to estimate the amount of FA they would consume solely because of mandatory fortification of foods.
Secondary analysis was performed on raw data collected through single 24-hour recalls as part of a larger study.
The dietary FA contributed by fortified foods eaten in the specified amounts was estimated to be 136 to 148 mcg/day (226 to 247 DFE/day) for young women and 151 to 160 mcg/day (252 to 267 DFE/day) for seniors. Most of this FA was contributed to the diet by enriched white flour.
Mandatory fortification of foods appears to have improved the total mean intake of folate by young women and seniors residing in NL.
For today the biologically active additives (BAA) extensively use by people as a source essential substances. However majoriry of people don't know, that BAA which contain vegetable components may induces various undiserable effects (UE). Review contain information about frequency of serious UE, first of all induced BAA, which contain medicinal plants. Discussed problem of charge efficacy and safety drugs when its use jointly with BAA. Think that need to give in BAA instruction additional information about possibility UE BAA.
Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, 8301 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Widespread poor vitamin D status in all age and gender groups in the United States (USA) and Canada increases the need for new food sources. Currently ~60% of the intake of vitamin D from foods is from fortified foods in these countries. Those groups in greatest need are consuming significantly lower amounts of commonly fortified foods such as milk. Both countries allow voluntary vitamin D fortification of some other foods, although in Canada this practice is only done on a case-by-case basis. Novel approaches to vitamin D fortification of food in both countries now include "bio-addition" in which food staples are fortified through the addition of another vitamin D-rich food to animal feed during production, or manipulation of food post-harvest or pre-processing. These bio-addition approaches provide a wider range of foods containing vitamin D, and thus appeal to differing preferences, cultures and possibly economic status. An example is the post-harvest exposure of edible mushrooms to ultraviolet light. However, further research into safety and efficacy of bio-addition needs to be established in different target populations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.
Vitamin B-12 is an important cofactor required for nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes anemia and neurologic abnormalities-a cause for concern for the elderly, who are at increased risk of vitamin B-12 malabsorption. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is also associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects and hyperhomocysteinemia. The metabolism of vitamin B-12 and folate is interdependent, which makes it of public health interest to monitor biomarkers of vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine in a folic acid-fortified population.
The objective was to determine the vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine status of the Canadian population in the period after folic acid fortification was initiated.
Blood was collected from a nationally representative sample of ~5600 participants aged 6-79 y in the Canadian Health Measures Survey during 2007-2009 and was analyzed for serum vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy).
A total of 4.6% of Canadians were vitamin B-12 deficient (1090 nmol/L).
Approximately 5% of Canadians are vitamin B-12 deficient. One percent of adult Canadians have metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency, as evidenced by combined vitamin B-12 deficiency and high tHcy status. In a folate-replete population, vitamin B-12 is a major determinant of tHcy.