The authors validate the necessity of hygienic certification including microbiological control of perfumes and cosmetics, to which oral hygiene means belong. They consider that the absence of sanitary regulations for some goods, toothpastes included, is one of the causes, responsible for the absence of a proper sanitary control on the part of State Epidemiological Survey of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the resolution "On Certification of Perfumes and Cosmetics" issued in 1994, Central Research Institute of Stomatology is appointed the central institution responsible for certification of means of oral hygiene, and at present its main task is development of sanitary regulations, standards, methods of investigation, and training of personnel for institutions which are to carry out certification.
The major issues and challenges confronting the dental professions in the United States and Norway were studied through speeches of and interviews with the presidents of the American Dental Association (ADA) and the Norwegian Dental Association (NDA) in the period 1980-86. The issues most frequently dealt with related to public authorities, particularly legislation and government involvement in dental practice. Anxiety concerning "busyness," the future dental market, and a drop in the quality of applicants to dental schools were also major subjects. The spokespersons of both associations were engaged in increasing the demand for dental services by marketing, but they were ambivalent regarding advertising, especially individual advertising. Both were concerned with protecting dentistry's autonomy. While the Norwegian presidents apparently feared the medical profession's influence upon dentistry, the Americans were concerned with the hygienists and denturists, and with the insurance companies which they suspected of intruding into the dentist-patient relationship. The presidents' statements, which frequently varied, were apparently influenced by the current domestic political climate, the basic socio-political principles of the two countries, and the different socio-demographic make-up of their memberships.