Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
A pit lake arises as a consequence of anthropogenic activities in opencast mining areas. These water bodies may be enriched in hazardous stable contaminants and/or in naturally occurring radionuclides depending on the local geological conditions. Mining legacy in Sweden produced hundreds of these pit lakes and most of them are used for recreational purposes in the southern part of the country. In this paper, one pit lake was selected for having enhanced levels of natural radionuclides. Physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen and depth), elemental composition (via Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and radiometric characterization (via alpha spectrometry of 226Ra, 210Po and 210Pb) were carried along the depth of a 60 m depth pit lake, with the main aim to describe how natural radionuclides and elements behaves with depth in a non-uraniferous pit lake. Based on observed changes in physico-chemical parameters, a thermocline and a chemocline region were identified at around 10 and 30 m depth respectively. Concerning radionuclides, 226Ra ranged from 75 ± 3 up to 360 ± 12 mBq/kg while 210Po ranged from 11 ± 1 up to 71 ± 3 mBq/kg. 210Pb distribution with depth was also determined via secular equilibrium with 210Po after 2 years and also stable Pb was measured. Disequilibrium 226Ra-210Pb was found and the residence time of 210Pb in the water column was assessed. Additionally, different vertical distributions between 210Pb and Pb were found which points out different sources for different lead isotopes in the water body.
This research work is devoted to analyzing the processes of accumulation and distribution of long-lived radionuclides of 90Sr and 137Cs in the components of water-sediment-macrophytes of Lake Malye Kirpichiky (Chelyabinsk region). The characteristic features of redistribution of radioactive substances, depending on the texture of the bottom sediments of the lake and the species composition of aquatic vegetation are shown. Also shown is the total stock of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments. The coefficients of 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation in bottom sediments and macrophytes have been calculated.
In the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, amphipod crustaceans have undergone a spectacular adaptive radiation, resulting in a diverse community of species. A survey of microsporidian parasites inhabiting endemic and non-endemic amphipod host species at the margins of Lake Baikal indicates that the endemic amphipods harbour many microsporidian parasite groups associated with amphipods elsewhere in Eurasia. While these parasites may have undergone a degree of adaptive radiation within the lake, there is little evidence of host specificity. Furthermore, a lack of reciprocal monophyly indicates that exchanges of microsporidia between Baikalian and non-Baikalian hosts have occurred frequently in the past and may be ongoing. Conversely, limitations to parasite exchange between Baikalian and non-Baikalian host populations at the margins of the lake are implied by differences in parasite prevalence and lack of shared microsporidian haplotypes between the two host communities. While amphipod hosts have speciated sympatrically within Lake Baikal, the parasites appear instead to have accumulated, moving into the lake from external amphipod populations on multiple occasions to exploit the large and diverse community of endemic amphipods in Lake Baikal.
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtj?nn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtj?nn the total water concentrations of Pb (14?g/L), Cu (6.1?g/L) and Sb (1.3?g/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitj?nn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12?g/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtj?nn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtj?nn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtj?nn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance.
The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales.
Three groups of Aeromonas strains isolated from Finland lakes experiencing cyanobacterial blooms could not be assigned to any known species of this genus on the basis of 16S rRNA and rpoD gene sequences. The Multilocus Phylogenetic Analysis (MLPA) of the concatenated sequence of seven genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX and atpD; 4093bp) showed that the three groups of strains did not cluster with any known Aeromonas spp. and formed three independent lineages. This was confirmed by performing the analysis with their closest relatives using 15 genes (the latter 7 and cpn60, dnaK, gltA, mdh, radA, rpoB, tsf, zipA; 8751bp). Furthermore, ANI results between the genomes of the type strains of the three potential new species and those of their close relatives were all
Results of special parasitological dissections of roach samples from catches with the same fishing gear and at the same station (Monakhovo Cove, Chivyrkui Bay of the Lake Baikal) and at the same time in different years (1998-2002) are given. Stability of age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalisis in different years with the maximum of prevalence and mean abundance in fish of 3+ age, and the following sharp decrease in these rates in elder age groups, was revealed. Basing on prevalence decreasing of a single roach generation, the rate of fish mortality during its growth from age group 3+ to 4+ was estimated as 15.9-20.7%.
Exposure to microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials may constitute a health risk to human populations. It is believed that one route of exposure occurs when people engage in recreational activities in water contaminated with these microorganisms. The main objective of this study was to explore population-level and environmental determinants specifically associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) generic Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters sampled from beaches located in southern Quebec, Canada. Water samples originated from the Quebec provincial beach surveillance program for the summers of 2004 and 2005. This study focused on three classes of determinants, namely: agricultural, population-level and beach characteristics for a total of 19 specific factors. The study was designed as a retrospective observational analysis and factors were assessed using logistic regression methods. From the multivariable analysis, the data suggested that the percentage of land used for spreading liquid manure was a significant factor associated with the presence of AMR E. coli (OR=27.73). Conceptually, broad factors potentially influencing the presence of AMR bacteria in water must be assessed specifically in addition to factors associated with general microbial contamination. Presence of AMR E. coli in recreational waters from beaches in southern Quebec may represent a risk for people engaging in water activities and this study provides preliminary evidence that agricultural practices, specifically spreading liquid manure in agricultural lands nearby beaches, may be linked to the contamination of these waters by AMR E. coli.