Elevated base deficit (BD) and lactate levels at admission in patients with injury have been shown to be associated with increased mortality. This relationship is undefined in the Canadian experience. The goal of this study was to define the association between arterial blood gas (ABG) values at admission and mortality for Canadians with severe blunt injury.
A retrospective review of 3,000 consecutive adult major trauma admissions (Injury Severity Score, = 12) to a Canadian academic tertiary care referral center was performed. ABG values at the time of arrival were analyzed with respect to associated mortality and length of stay.
A total of 2,269 patients (76%) had complete data available for analysis. After exclusion of patients who sustained a penetrating injury or were admitted for minor falls (ground levels or low height), 445 had an ABG drawn within 2 hours of arrival. Patients who died displayed a higher median lactate (3.6 vs. 2.2, p
HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is a stigmatizing hallmark for persons living with HIV [PLWH], and can lead to poor social functioning, social isolation, and reduced labour force participation. Treatments for this condition are prohibitively expensive and are not publicly insured in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Information gleaned from an economic evaluation of treatments for FLA could inform policy decision making concerning coverage.
Decision-analytic techniques were used to estimate the lifetime incremental costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained from use of either Poly-l-lactic acid or Polyalkylimide gel from the perspectives of society and the Ontario Ministry of Health. Disease progression probabilities and utilities were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained through interviews with product distributors and physicians who perform these treatments. Costs were valued in 2009 Canadian Dollars. Costs and outcomes were discounted annually at 3%.
Treatments using Polyalkylimide gel exhibit such a cost advantage over those using Poly-l-lactic acid that they more than compensate for the health-related quality of life advantages of Poly-l-lactic acid. From a Ministry of Health perspective, the incremental cost-utility ratios for Polyalkylimide gel or Poly-l-lactic acid compared to no treatment were $45,457 CAD or $57,352 CAD per QALY, respectively, $1.00 CAD = $0.876 USD). From a societal perspective the equivalent ratios were $48,583 CAD and $66,608 CAD respectively. These findings were not altered in the sensitivity analyses.
FLA treatments for PLWH enhance QALYs and meet conventional cost-utility thresholds. The incremental cost per QALY for Polyalkylimide gel was lower than that for Poly-l-lactic acid.
Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium indigenous to estuarine waters and is known to be a significant human pathogen. Infections are generally associated with the consumption of raw oyster. In an attempt to identify possible antimicrobial agents against this organism that might be used in foods, ten compounds that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA were tested against both the opaque and translucent morphotypes of V. vulnificus. Eight of those compounds had a lethal effect for both morphotypes of this bacterium. Diacetyl had the lowest lethal concentration (50 ppm) of the GRAS compounds tested within 24 h. Lactic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole possessed lethal activities at 300 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively, within 3 h. The mode of action of lactic acid against V. vulnificus appears to be an effect primarily of pH, while the antimicrobial activities of diacetyl and BHA appeared not to be affected by pH. No significant differences were found for opaque to translucent, or from translucent to opaque switching, in examining the possible effects of the GRAS compounds on colonial morphology.
Plasma met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid concentrations were measured in seventeen volunteer male subjects at rest and after a long-distance nordic ski race. Immediately after the race, mean plasma met-enkephalin did not show any significant change, but significant rises in beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid were noted in all skiers. The change in beta-endorphin with exercise was significantly related to the change in cortisol (r = 0.68; p less than 0.001) and to the change in plasma lactic acid (r = 0.60; p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the experienced skiers training over 150 km X week-1 of nordic ski had significantly faster skiing times in this event and showed greater beta-endorphin, cortisol and lactic acid levels than the recreational skiers who trained for 20 km X week-1. Our results imply that the changes in plasma beta-endorphin depend on the intensity of exercise. However the significance of higher levels of skiing training or previous nordic ski experience in the release of beta-endorphin is expected and cannot be excluded.
Diabetes and alcohol abuse may cause severe metabolic disturbances that can be fatal. These may be difficult to diagnose in autopsies based solely on macroscopical and histological findings. In such cases, metabolic markers, such as postmortem glucose and ketone levels, can provide supporting information. Glucose or combined glucose and lactate, the Traub value, is often used to indicate hyperglycemia. The use of the Traub value, however, has been questioned by some, because the lactate levels are known to elevate in postmortem samples also due to other reasons than glycolysis of glucose molecules. Ketoacidosis can be detected by analyzing ketone body levels, especially beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB). Acetone is also elevated in severe cases of ketoacidosis. Here, we have evaluated the value of these biomarkers for postmortem determination of the metabolic disturbances. Retrospective data of 980 medico-legal autopsies performed in Finland, where glucose, lactate and ketone bodies were analyzed, was collected. Our findings show that the Traub value indicates hyperglycemia, even when glucose levels are low. For diagnosis, evaluation of complementing markers, e.g. ketone bodies and glycated hemoglobin is needed. Our results show that BHB can be used for screening and diagnosis of ketoacidosis. Acetone alone is not sufficient, since it is elevated only in the most severe cases. We also found that alcohol abuse rarely causes severe ketoacidosis. However, sporadic cases do exist where ketone body levels are extremely high. Despite this, alcoholic ketoacidosis is very rarely diagnosed as the cause of death.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there is an association between high lactate concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) and labor dystocia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Labor ward at General South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. POPULATION AND METHODS: Women in active labor attending labor ward, having at least two consecutive measurements of lactate concentration in AF, measured 60 minutes apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Dysfunctional labor, defined as instrumental or operative delivery due to dystocia. RESULTS: Among women with spontaneous vaginal deliveries (n=23) the mean lactate concentration in AF during labor was 8.9 mmol/l (range 6.6-10.8), and among women with operative delivery due to labor dystocia (n=31) the corresponding value was 10.9 mmol/l (range 8.0-16.1) (p or =10.1 mmol/l) in at least two consecutive measures collected at least 60 minutes apart, 25 (86%) were delivered instrumentally/operatively due to dystocia. Using this definition of a positive test, the diagnostic accuracy to predict operative delivery due to dystocia was: sensitivity 81% (25/31), specificity 83% (19/23), positive predictive value 86% (25/29), and negative predictive value 76% (19/25). The likelihood ratio was 5.0 for a positive test and 0.2 for a negative test. CONCLUSIONS: High lactate concentration (> or =10.1mmol/l) in at least two consecutive samples of AF collected during labor 60 minutes apart is strongly associated with dystocia. This method might be useful in clinical management to identify labor dystocia at an early stage of labor.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether lactate determination in vaginal fluid is associated with, and can predict, onset of labour for women with suspected prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Labour ward at Soder Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. POPULATION: Women with suspected PROM after 34 weeks of gestation, who later had spontaneous onset of labour (n = 179). METHODS: All women underwent a speculum examination and a test for determining lactate concentration in vaginal fluid. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between lactate concentration in vaginal fluid and time to onset of labour. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time from examination to onset of labour (cervix > or =4 cm), within 24 hours and 48 hours. RESULTS: The median time interval between examination and spontaneous onset of labour was 8.4 hours for women with 'high' lactate (> or =4.5 mmol/l) and 54 hours for those with 'low' lactate concentrations ( or =4.5 mmol/l) in vaginal fluid can be used to predict whether a woman with suspected PROM will commence spontaneous onset of labour within 24 or 48 hours.
In this study we evaluate apparent normal ranges for three Alaskan Eskimo village populations sampled during the International Biological Program. The normal ranges so developed are referenced for comparison to Wisconsin populations matched for age and sex, including children. The purpose is twofold: to derive specific Eskimo population normal ranges, and possibly to evaluate, via the tests, the health status of the Eskimo population.
Alaska Medical Library - From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 963.
To describe outcomes of septic shock and multiple organ failure arising from candidemia.
Secondary cohort analysis of data from the placebo arm of the North American Septic Shock Trial (NORASEPT II), the largest prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled multiple center study of septic shock conducted to date, with predetermined end point analysis of outcomes.
Adult intensive care units in 105 hospitals in the United States and Canada.
A cohort of ten purely candidemic patients in septic shock were compared with a cohort of 376 purely bacteremic patients in septic shock. Patients were not immunocompromised, because patients on corticosteroids, with neutropenia, or posttransplantation were excluded from enrollment in NORASEPT II.
Demographic variables, baseline characteristics, 28-day mortality rates, and multiple organ failure were compared for the two cohorts. Candidemic patients were more likely to have a history of underlying renal failure at baseline and to require dialysis at onset of septic shock. Both causes of septic shock are associated with an extremely high severity of illness (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II: candidemic septic shock, 32 +/- 10; bacteremic septic shock, 30 +/- 8; p =.44). More than 70% of patients with candidemia and septic shock were in multiple organ failure at days 3, 7, and 14; patients with candidemic septic shock sustained persistent multiple organ failure and showed delayed recovery from multiple organ failure compared with patients with bacteremic septic shock. Mortality rate at 28 days was 60% in candidemic septic shock and 46% in bacteremic septic shock (p =.38).
Candidemia with septic shock is infrequent in nonimmunocompromised patients but has a very high mortality rate, a high likelihood of associated multiple organ failure, and possibly a delayed recovery from multiple organ failure. Patients with candidemic septic shock are more likely to have underlying renal failure at baseline.
This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P