Polymorphisms in the gene coding for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) contribute to variation in bone mass in the general population. Whether this is due to influence on bone mass acquisition or on bone loss thereafter has not been established.
We studied the association of LRP5 polymorphisms with peak bone mass in young men. The study included 235 Finnish men, aged 18.3 to 20.6 years. Lifestyle factors and fracture history were recorded. Bone mineral content (BMC), density (BMD) and scan area were measured for the lumbar spine and proximal femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood and urine were collected for determination of bone turnover markers, serum 25-OHD and PTH. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for genetic analysis of LRP5. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms in LRP5 were analyzed and correlated with bone parameters.
Only the A1330V polymorphism of LRP5 significantly associated with bone parameters. In comparison with subjects with the AlaAla genotype (n=215), those with AlaVal genotype (n=20) had lower femoral neck BMC (P=0.029) and BMD (P=0.012), trochanter BMC (P=0.0067) and BMD (P=0.015), and total hip BMC (P=0.0044) and BMD (P=0.0089). Fracture history was similar for the genotypes.
The polymorphic valine variant at position 1330 of LRP5 was significantly associated with reduced BMC and BMD values in healthy young Finnish men. The results provide evidence for the crucial role of LRP5 in peak bone mass acquisition.
Precocious increase in adrenal androgen production is the hallmark of premature adrenarche (PA). Adrenal androgens have anabolic properties.
The objective of the study was to test whether body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) are altered in PA and study whether genetic variation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects BMD in PA.
This was a cross-sectional study.
The study was conducted at a university hospital.
The study included 126 prepubertal children (64 with PA, 10 boys; 62 non-PA controls, 10 boys). Femoral neck and lumbar spine areal and calculated volumetric BMD (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), body composition (bioimpedance), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and markers of bone turnover and calcium homeostasis were compared between the PA and control groups. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of LRP5 were determined and associated with BMD.
Children with PA had higher femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD(areal) than the controls (Z-score 0.56 vs. -0.09, P
Cerebral cysts and calcifications with leukoencephalopathy and retinal vascular abnormalities are diagnostic hallmarks of cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC). Previous studies have suggested that skeletal involvement is also common, but its characteristics remain unknown. This study aimed to assess the skeletal phenotype in CRMCC. All Finnish patients with features consistent with CRMCC and for whom radiographs were available were included. Clinical information pertinent to the skeletal phenotype was collected from hospital records, and all plain radiographs were reviewed for skeletal features. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DXA. In one patient, bone biopsies were obtained for bone histology and histomorphometric analyses. The LRP5 gene was analyzed for mutations by direct sequencing. Our results show that the skeletal phenotype in CRMCC includes (1) compromised longitudinal growth pre- and postnatally, (2) generalized osteopenia or early onset low turnover osteoporosis with fragility fractures, and (3) metaphyseal abnormalities that may lead to limb deformities such as short femoral neck or genua valga. DXA measurements in three patients showed low BMD, and bone biopsies in the fourth patient with pathological fractures and impaired fracture healing showed low-turnover osteoporosis, with reduced osteoclast and osteoblast activity. Direct sequencing of all LRP5 coding exons and exon-intron boundaries in six patients with CRMCC revealed no putative mutations. We conclude that the CRMCC-associated bone disease is characterized by low BMD and pathological fractures with delayed healing, metaphyseal changes, and short stature pre- and postnatally. LRP5 is not a disease-causing gene in CRMCC.
To make qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenotypical characteristics and to study a spectrum and frequency of mutations in LDLR and APOB genes in patients with familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia (FHHC).
Clinical symptoms of FHHC were studied in males and females. Mutations were detected with PCR, analysis of SSCP of all the exones of LDLR gene and a fragment of exone 26 of APOB gene with subsequent sequestration of DNA fragments with anomalous electrophoretic motility, analysis of restriction fragments length polymorphism.
LDLR gene mutations were detected in 50%, of APOB gene in 2.6% patients with FHHC, 70% of LDLR gene mutations have never been discovered before. Three known mutations were detected in the APOB gene: R3500Q (1.9% cases), H3543Y (0.55%), R3531C (0.15%). Incidence of coronary heart disease in untreated FHHC patients is 61.5%, of myocardial infarction--31%. Life span of both males and females with FHHC was subnormal, especially of men (median: 53 years in 95% CI, 49.2-56.8 years and 62 years in 95% CI 59.2-64.8 years, respectively). Incidence rate of basic clinical symptoms increased with age and significantly correlated with LDLP cholesterol.
Frequency and severity of clinical symptoms and complications in FHHC and in Russian population agree with those of the European countries. The same occurs with frequency and mutations of the APOB gene, while mutations of the LDLR gene in 70% cases are unique for Russian population and are not described in other countries. This makes impossible to use foreign test kits for FHHC diagnosis in Russia.
Three of 20 patients with juvenile osteoporosis were found to have a heterozygous mutation in the LRP5 gene. No mutations were found in the type I collagen genes. Mutations in the other family members with similar bone phenotype confirmed that LRP5 has a role in both juvenile and adult osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The gene encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene has recently been shown to affect bone mass accrual during growth and to be involved in osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome and a high bone mass phenotype. Mutations in the type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) are known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta, characterized by increased bone fragility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we analyzed COL1A1, COL1A2, and LRP5 for mutations in 20 pediatric patients with primary osteoporosis characterized by low BMD, recurrent fractures, and absent extraskeletal manifestations. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No mutations were detected in the type I collagen genes, but two missense mutations (A29T and R1036Q) and one frameshift mutation (C913fs) were found in the LRP5 gene in three of the patients. The frameshift mutation was also seen in the proband's father and brother, who both were found to have significant osteoporosis. R1036Q was observed in the proband's mother and two brothers, who all had osteoporosis. These results indicate that heterozygous mutations in the LRP5 gene can cause osteoporosis in both children and adults.
Bone mineral density has a strong genetic component but it is also influenced by environmental factors making it a complex trait to study. LRP5 gene was previously shown to be involved in rare diseases affecting bone mass. Mutations associated with gain-of-function were described as well as loss-of-function mutations. Following this discovery, many frequent LRP5 polymorphisms were tested against the variation of BMD in the normal population.
Heel bone parameters (SOS, BUA) were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 5021 healthy French-Canadian women and for 2104 women, BMD evaluated by DXA at two sites was available (femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS)). Among women with QUS measures and those with DXA measures, 26.5% and 32.8% respectively were premenopausal, 9.2% and 10.7% were perimenopausal and 64.2% and 56.5% were postmenopausal. About a third of the peri- and postmenopausal women never received hormone therapy. Two single nucleotide coding polymorphisms (Val667Met and Ala1330Val) in LRP5 gene were genotyped by allele-specific PCR. All bone measures were tested individually for associations with each polymorphism by analysis of covariance with adjustment for non genetic risk factors. Furthermore, haplotype analysis was performed to take into account the strong linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms.
The two LRP5 polymorphisms were found to be associated with all five bone measures (L2L4 and femoral neck DXA as well as heel SOS, BUA and stiffness index) in the whole sample. Premenopausal women drove the association as expected from the proposed role of LRP5 in peak bone mass. Our results suggest that the Val667Met polymorphism is the causative variant but this remains to be functionally proven.
Premature adrenarche (PA) is associated with unfavourable metabolic characteristics. We hypothesized that genetic variation in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), which is involved in Wnt signalling in the adrenal cortex and in cholesterol metabolism, plays a role in the pathogenesis of PA.
We performed a cross-sectional association study in 73 Finnish children with PA and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls.
LRP5 genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. Single-marker associations with clinical-metabolic characteristics, including adrenocortical function, glucose tolerance and lipid profile, were examined with age and gender as covariates.
Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LRP5 were found in the 170 children. No significant differences in the genotype distributions were observed between the PA and control groups. SNPs A1330V and N740N were associated with higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels in the control subjects (A/A vs. A/a; mean 0.8 vs. 1.4 micromol/l, P = 0.01). They were also associated with higher plasma levels of total (4.2 vs. 4.7 mmol/l, P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (2.4 vs. 2.9 mmol/l, P = 0.02) in the control group, as was SNP V1119V (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively). SNPs F549F and V1119V were associated with higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). There were no differences in the parameters of glucose metabolism between the genotype groups.
Genetic variation in LRP5 did not predispose to PA but was associated with metabolic characteristics, especially lipid profile, in healthy prepubertal children.
Both osteoporosis and hip geometry are independently associated with fracture risk. There is a significant genetic contribution to the risk of osteoporosis, and evidence provided by twin studies has suggested that hip geometry may also in part be genetically programmed. Polymorphisms in a number of genes, including those coding for methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR c.677C > T), the purinergic P2X(7) receptor (Glu496Ala and Ile568Asn), and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 exon 9 [c.266A > G]), have been associated with an increased fracture incidence and/or reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of the present study was to test whether these polymorphisms influence hip structural geometry in perimenopausal women. The four polymorphisms were genotyped in 800 healthy recently perimenopausal women never using hormone replacement therapy. BMD of the femoral neck was measured using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer and femoral neck axis length, neck width, neck shaft angle, and femoral head diameter were measured from the screen images. Genotype frequencies were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant differences between homozygotes for the minor allele and carriers of the common allele regarding parameters of hip geometry were demonstrated. According to the anthropometric characteristics of the subjects, only body height in the MTHFR TT genotype group was significantly different from the combined CT/CC genotype group (P T, P2X(7) (Glu496Ala), P2X(7) (Ile568Asn), and LRP5 exon 9 (c.266A > G) polymorphisms.
The gene encoding the neuronal sortilin-related receptor SORL1 has been claimed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by independent groups and across various human populations. We evaluated six genetic markers in SORL1 in a sample of 1,558 Swedish dementia cases (including 1,270 AD cases) and 2,179 controls. For both single-marker-based and haplotype-based analyses, we found no strong support for SORL1 as a dementia or AD risk-modifying gene in our sample in isolation nor did we observe association with AD/dementia-related traits, including cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid(1-42), tau levels, or age at onset. However, meta-analyses of markers in this study together with previously published studies on SORL1 encompassing in excess of 13,000 individuals does suggest significant association with AD (best odds ratio = 1.097; 95% confidence interval = 1.038-1.158, p = 0.001). All six markers were significant in meta-analyses and it is notable that they occur in two distinct linkage disequilibrium blocks. These data are consistent with either allelic heterogeneity or the existence of as yet untested functional variants and these will be important considerations in further attempts to evaluate the importance of sequence variation in SORL1 with AD risk.