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Cross-country variation in the sociodemographic factors associated with major depressive episode in Norway, the United Kingdom, Ghana, and Kenya.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261098
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jul;113:154-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Eliva A Ambugo
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Jul;113:154-60
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Female
Ghana - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Health Status Disparities
Health Surveys
Humans
Kenya - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Studies based on Western samples generally show that status characteristics like gender or marital status are associated with better mental health for individuals who occupy advantageous positions, such as men or the married. However, these patterns may not hold in developing regions that differ in important ways from the West. Guided by the Stress Process Model (SPM), this study uses logistic regression to examine the effect of gender, education, and other status characteristics on major depressive episode (MDE). Similarities and differences in these associations across two Western and two African countries are also assessed. Nationally representative data for adults ages 18 years and older are from the World Health Surveys (2002-2004) for Norway (N = 943), the United Kingdom (UK: N = 1195), Ghana (N = 3922), and Kenya (N = 4331). Results indicate a mixed pattern of associations between status characteristics and MDE across the four countries. Norwegian men face higher risk of MDE than Norwegian women-an anomalous finding. With some exceptions, education and employment status are not significantly related to MDE across the countries, providing little support for SPM. Marital status differences in risk of MDE are largest for Norway and smallest for Ghana. For the UK, men face lower risk of MDE than women across levels of mastery, and the gender gap in MDE is larger at higher levels of mastery. Overall, there is some heterogeneity in the associations between status characteristics and MDE even in somewhat similar environments like Ghana and Kenya. This study extends the reach of SPM to settings in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes to the sparse empirical literature on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of MDE in the general populations of Ghana and Kenya.
PubMed ID
24875047 View in PubMed
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Detection of cytolethal distending toxin activity and cdt genes in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolates from geographically diverse populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31461
Source
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Aug;17(4):231-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
A S Fabris
J M DiRienzo
M. Wïkstrom
M P A Mayer
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Source
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Aug;17(4):231-8
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans - pathogenicity
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Bacterial Toxins - analysis - genetics - metabolism - pharmacology
Brazil - epidemiology
CHO Cells - drug effects - microbiology
Child
Cricetinae
Cricetulus
Dental Plaque - microbiology
Epidemiology, Molecular
Gene Frequency
Genes, Bacterial
Humans
Japan - epidemiology
Kenya - epidemiology
Periodontitis - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sweden - epidemiology
Virulence Factors - analysis - genetics - metabolism - pharmacology
Abstract
A cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) found in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans inhibits the eukaryotic cell cycle, which may contribute to the pathogenic potential of the bacterium. The presence of the cdtABC genes and CDT activity were examined in 40 clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans from Brazil, Kenya, Japan and Sweden. Thirty-nine of 40 cell lysates caused distension of Chinese hamster ovary cells. At least one of the cdt genes was detected in all strains examined. The three cdt genes were detected, by PCR, in 34 DNA samples. DNA from one strain from Kenya did not yield amplicons of the cdtA and cdtB genes and did not express toxic activity. Restriction analysis was performed on every amplicon obtained. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that the three cdt genes were conserved. These data provided evidence that the cdt genes are found and expressed in the majority of the A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates. Although a quantitative difference in cytotoxicity was observed, indicating variation in expression of CDT among strains, no clear relationship between CDT activity and periodontal status was found.
PubMed ID
12121473 View in PubMed
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The global response to HIV in men who have sex with men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274917
Source
Lancet. 2016 Jul 9;388(10040):198-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-9-2016
Author
Chris Beyrer
Stefan D Baral
Chris Collins
Eugene T Richardson
Patrick S Sullivan
Jorge Sanchez
Gift Trapence
Elly Katabira
Michel Kazatchkine
Owen Ryan
Andrea L Wirtz
Kenneth H Mayer
Source
Lancet. 2016 Jul 9;388(10040):198-206
Date
Jul-9-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - methods
Bisexuality
China - epidemiology
Epidemics
Gambia - epidemiology
Global health
Great Britain - epidemiology
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Homosexuality, Male
Human Rights
Humans
Incidence
Kenya - epidemiology
Legislation as Topic
Male
Minority Groups
Nigeria - epidemiology
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis - methods
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior
Thailand - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to have disproportionately high burdens of HIV infection in countries of low, middle, and high income in 2016. 4 years after publication of a Lancet Series on MSM and HIV, progress on reducing HIV incidence, expanding sustained access to treatment, and realising human rights gains for MSM remains markedly uneven and fraught with challenges. Incidence densities in MSM are unacceptably high in countries as diverse as China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and the USA, with substantial disparities observed in specific communities of MSM including young and minority populations. Although some settings have achieved sufficient coverage of treatment, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and human rights protections for sexual and gender minorities to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic in MSM, these are exceptions. The roll-out of PrEP has been notably slow and coverage nowhere near what will be required for full use of this new preventive approach. Despite progress on issues such as marriage equality and decriminalisation of same-sex behaviour in some countries, there has been a marked increase in anti-gay legislation in many countries, including Nigeria, Russia, and The Gambia. The global epidemic of HIV in MSM is ongoing, and global efforts to address it remain insufficient. This must change if we are ever to truly achieve an AIDS-free generation.
PubMed ID
27411880 View in PubMed
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Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117363
Source
Glob Public Health. 2013;8(2):221-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Carolyn Dohoo
John VanLeeuwen
Judith Read Guernsey
Kim Critchley
Mark Gibson
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
Source
Glob Public Health. 2013;8(2):221-35
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Biofuels - classification - supply & distribution - utilization
Cattle
Cooking - instrumentation - methods
Dairying - methods
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
International Cooperation
Interviews as Topic
Kenya - epidemiology
Manure
Middle Aged
Prince Edward Island
Quality of Life
Time Factors
Weight Lifting - injuries
Wood
Abstract
Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p
PubMed ID
23305236 View in PubMed
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Infrastructural requirements for local implementation of safety policies: the discordance between top-down and bottom-up systems of action.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89731
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:45
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Timpka Toomas
Nordqvist Cecilia
Lindqvist Kent
Author Affiliation
Section of Social Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. tti@ida.liu.se
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:45
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Equipment and Supplies, Hospital - supply & distribution
Female
Health Care Surveys
Hospitals, Maternity - organization & administration
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Kenya - epidemiology
Medical Errors - prevention & control
Medical Staff, Hospital - organization & administration
Obstetrics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Organizational Policy
Policy Making
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - mortality
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Referral and Consultation
Safety Management - organization & administration
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Safety promotion is planned and practised not only by public health organizations, but also by other welfare state agencies, private companies and non-governmental organizations. The term 'infrastructure' originally denoted the underlying resources needed for warfare, e.g. roads, industries, and an industrial workforce. Today, 'infrastructure' refers to the physical elements, organizations and people needed to run projects in different societal arenas. The aim of this study was to examine associations between infrastructure and local implementation of safety policies in injury prevention and safety promotion programs. METHODS: Qualitative data on municipalities in Sweden designated as Safe Communities were collected from focus group interviews with municipal politicians and administrators, as well as from policy documents, and materials published on the Internet. Actor network theory was used to identify weaknesses in the present infrastructure and determine strategies that can be used to resolve these. RESULTS: The weakness identification analysis revealed that the factual infrastructure available for effectuating national strategies varied between safety areas and approaches, basically reflecting differences between bureaucratic and network-based organizational models. At the local level, a contradiction between safety promotion and the existence of quasi-markets for local public service providers was found to predispose for a poor local infrastructure diminishing the interest in integrated inter-agency activities. The weakness resolution analysis showed that development of an adequate infrastructure for safety promotion would require adjustment of the legal framework regulating injury data exchange, and would also require rational financial models for multi-party investments in local infrastructures. CONCLUSION: We found that the "silo" structure of government organization and assignment of resources was a barrier to collaborative action for safety at a community level. It may therefore be overly optimistic to take for granted that different approaches to injury control, such as injury prevention and safety promotion, can share infrastructure. Similarly, it may be unrealistic to presuppose that safety promotion can reach its potential in terms of injury rate reductions unless the critical infrastructure for this is in place. Such an alignment of the infrastructure to organizational processes requires more than financial investments.
PubMed ID
19272141 View in PubMed
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Moving to an A1C-based diagnosis of diabetes has a different impact on prevalence in different ethnic groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98607
Source
Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar;33(3):580-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Dirk L Christensen
Daniel R Witte
Lydia Kaduka
Marit E Jørgensen
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Viswanathan Mohan
Jonathan E Shaw
Adam G Tabák
Dorte Vistisen
Author Affiliation
Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar;33(3):580-2
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Australia - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology - ethnology
Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine - trends
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Greenland - epidemiology
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Humans
India - epidemiology
Kenya - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Abstract
OBJECTIVE To compare screen-detected diabetes prevalence and the degree of diagnostic agreement by ethnicity with the current oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-based and newly proposed A1C-based diagnostic criteria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Six studies (1999-2009) from Denmark, the U.K., Australia, Greenland, Kenya, and India were tested for the probability of an A1C > or =6.5% among diabetic case subjects based on an OGTT. The difference in probability between centers was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS Diabetes prevalence was lower with the A1C-based diagnostic criteria in four of six studies. The probability of an A1C > or =6.5% among OGTT-diagnosed case subjects ranged widely (17.0-78.0%) by study center. Differences in diagnostic agreement between ethnic subgroups in the U.K. study were of the same magnitude as between-country comparisons. CONCLUSIONS A shift to an A1C-based diagnosis for diabetes will have substantially different consequences for diabetes prevalence across ethnic groups and populations.
PubMed ID
20009099 View in PubMed
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Perceived mother and father acceptance-rejection predict four unique aspects of child adjustment across nine countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271594
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Aug;56(8):923-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Diane L Putnick
Marc H Bornstein
Jennifer E Lansford
Patrick S Malone
Concetta Pastorelli
Ann T Skinner
Emma Sorbring
Sombat Tapanya
Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado
Arnaldo Zelli
Liane Peña Alampay
Suha M Al-Hassan
Dario Bacchini
Anna Silvia Bombi
Lei Chang
Kirby Deater-Deckard
Laura Di Giunta
Kenneth A Dodge
Paul Oburu
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Aug;56(8):923-32
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
China - epidemiology
Colombia - epidemiology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Emotional adjustment
Fathers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Jordan - epidemiology
Kenya - epidemiology
Male
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Parent-Child Relations
Parenting - psychology
Parents - psychology
Philippines - epidemiology
Rejection (Psychology)
Social Adjustment
Social Distance
Sweden - epidemiology
Thailand - epidemiology
United States
Abstract
It is generally believed that parental rejection of children leads to child maladaptation. However, the specific effects of perceived parental acceptance-rejection on diverse domains of child adjustment and development have been incompletely documented, and whether these effects hold across diverse populations and for mothers and fathers are still open questions.
This study assessed children's perceptions of mother and father acceptance-rejection in 1,247 families from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States as antecedent predictors of later internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, school performance, prosocial behavior, and social competence.
Higher perceived parental rejection predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and decreases in school performance and prosocial behavior across 3 years controlling for within-wave relations, stability across waves, and parental age, education, and social desirability bias. Patterns of relations were similar across mothers and fathers and, with a few exceptions, all nine countries.
Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection have small but nearly universal effects on multiple aspects of their adjustment and development regardless of the family's country of origin.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25492267 View in PubMed
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The structure and correlates of alcohol dependence: WHO collaborative project on the early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption--III.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11643
Source
Addiction. 1993 Dec;88(12):1627-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
W. Hall
J B Saunders
T F Babor
O G Aasland
A. Amundsen
R. Hodgson
M. Grant
Author Affiliation
Centre for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
Source
Addiction. 1993 Dec;88(12):1627-36
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology
Australia - epidemiology
Bulgaria - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Female
Humans
Kenya - epidemiology
Male
Mexico - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Substance-Related Disorders
United States - epidemiology
World Health Organization
gamma-Glutamyltransferase - blood
Abstract
The cross-cultural validity of the Alcohol Dependence Syndrome was tested on 13 symptoms of alcohol dependence which were assessed as part of a WHO collaborative study of the early detection of harmful drinking. The subjects were drinking patients in health care settings in Australia, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and the US. Principal Components Analyses were performed on the symptoms in each centre, and the degree of agreement between the results was assessed by calculating coefficients of congruence between the item loadings on the first principal component. In all six centres the first Principal Component accounted for at least half of the total variance and all symptoms had positive loadings greater than 0.40 on the first Principal Component. The coefficients of congruence were all 0.98 or more, and the 13 symptoms had internal consistency coefficients of 0.94 or more. An alcohol dependence score defined by the sum of positive responses to the 13 alcohol dependence symptoms was positively correlated with self-reported alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, serum gamma glutamyltransferase and a clinical examination assessment of alcoholism in all six samples.
PubMed ID
7907509 View in PubMed
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Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature94054
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2007;61(4):304-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Wilhelmsen Ingvard
Mulindi Sobbie
Sankok David
Wilhelmsen Ane B
Eriksen Hege R
Ursin Holger
Author Affiliation
Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, and Department of Medicine, Haraldsplass Deaconal Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Ingvard.Wilhelmsen@med.uib.no
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2007;61(4):304-9
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
African Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Kenya - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Rural Population
Abstract
The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country.
PubMed ID
17763124 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.