PURPOSE: To compare the outcome of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) versus conventional open repair (OR) in patients with a short, angulated or otherwise challenging proximal neck. METHODS: The definition of a challenging proximal neck was based on diameter (>or=28 mm), length (or=60 degrees ), shape (reverse tapered or bulging), and thrombus lining (>50%). Between January 2005 and December 2007, 187 consecutive patients (159 men; mean age 73 years, range 48-92) operated for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were identified as having challenging proximal neck morphology. Of these, 61 patients were treated with OR at center I (group A), 71 with standard EVAR (group B; 45 center I, 29 center II) and 52 with fenestrated EVAR (group C) at center II. Clinical examination and computed tomography were performed at 1 month and yearly thereafter. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups A, B, and C regarding primary technical success rate, 30-day mortality, or late AAA-related mortality. The mean length of follow-up was 19.5 months (range 0-40). Freedom from reintervention at 3 years was 91.8%, 79.7%, and 82.7% for groups A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.042). The only statistically significant difference between standard and fenestrated EVAR was a higher incidence of late sac expansion [9 (12.2%) versus 1 (1.9%), p = 0.036] in the standard stent-graft group. Reinterventions were more frequent after EVAR (p = NS), but open reinterventions were more common after OR. Reinterventions after EVAR were related to the presence of an angulated (p = 0.039) or short neck (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: The results of EVAR and OR were similar for AAAs with a challenging proximal neck. Endovascular reinterventions were more frequent after EVAR, particularly in patients with an angulated or short neck. Open reinterventions were more common after OR. More patients and long-term data are needed to confirm these findings.
Acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descendent coronary artery (LAD) is a critical medical condition often leading to heart failure and death. Our objective was to investigate how additional angiographic findings might influence prognosis.
In a single center setting by using consecutive data from the Swedish angiography and angioplasty registry (SCAAR), we identified all patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) related to the proximal LAD referred for primary coronary angioplasty. Clinical and angiographic data were collected from January 2004 to December 2008.
In the study period, 359 patients (mean age 67.9 ± 12.3 years, 111 women) were identified as having proximal LAD-related culprit lesion. Follow-up was up to 5.5 years. Compared to patients with LAD occlusion only, having both a small conus branch (
Comment In: Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2011 Jun 1;77(7):108621452225
Primary prosthetic replacement has become an accepted method for the treatment of complex distal humeral fractures. The present study investigated implant survival and adverse events related to this procedure based on available Swedish registries and examined the completeness of the Swedish Elbow Arthroplasty register.
Patients treated in Sweden with a primary elbow replacement due to a distal humeral fracture between 1999 and 2014 were identified through 3 different registries: The Swedish Elbow Arthroplasty Register, National Board of Health and Welfare inpatient register, and local registries of all orthopedic departments. Prosthetic survival was examined using Cox regression analysis with Kaplan-Meier plots. Adverse events, defined as medical treatment of the affected elbow besides revision, were analyzed separately. The study included 406 elbows in 405 patients, and no register was complete.
Implant survival at 10 years was 90% (95% confidence interval, 85%-96%), but only 45 patients had an observation time of 10 years or more because 46% of the patients had died, resulting in a mean observation time of 67 (standard deviation, 47) months. An increase in the use of hemiarthroplasties and a proportional decrease of total elbow arthroplasties was detected. There were 18 revisions (4%), and 26 patients (6%) experienced an adverse event, of whom 16 (4%) required surgery. The completeness of the Swedish Elbow Arthroplasty Register regarding primary arthroplasty was 81%.
Primary arthroplasty as treatment of distal humeral fractures produces reliable results with regards to revisions and other adverse events.
Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is an increasingly commonly used surgical treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa); however, its longer-term oncologic results remain uncertain.
To report biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) outcomes for men who underwent RARP =5 yr ago at a single European centre.
A total of 944 patients underwent RARP as monotherapy for PCa from January 2002 to December 2006 at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Standard clinicopathologic variables were recorded and entered into a secure, ethics-approved database made up of those men with registered domiciles in Stockholm. The median follow-up time was 6.3 yr (interquartile range: 5.6-7.2).
The outcome of this study was biochemical recurrence (BCR), defined as a confirmed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of =0.2 ng/ml. Kaplan-Meier survival plots with log-rank tests, as well as Cox univariable and multivariable regression analyses, were used to determine BRFS estimates and determine predictors of PSA relapse, respectively.
The BRFS for the entire cohort at median follow-up was 84.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.2-87.1); estimates at 5, 7, and 9 yr were 87.1% (95% CI, 84.8-89.2), 84.5% (95% CI, 81.8-86.8), and 82.6% (95% CI, 79.0-85.6), respectively. Nine and 19 patients died of PCa and other causes, respectively, giving end-of-follow-up Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 98.0% (95% CI, 95.5-99.1) and 94.1% (95% CI, 90.4-96.4), respectively. Preoperative PSA >10, postoperative Gleason sum =4 + 3, pathologic T3 disease, positive surgical margin status, and lower surgeon volume were associated with increased risk of BCR on multivariable analysis. This study is limited by a lack of nodal status and tumour volume, which may have confounded our findings.
This case series from a single, high-volume, European centre demonstrates that RARP has satisfactory medium-term BRFS. Further follow-up is necessary to determine how this finding will translate into cancer-specific and overall survival outcomes.
Compared to middle-aged women, young women with breast cancer have a higher risk of systemic disease. We studied expression of proliferation markers in relation to age and subtype and their association with long-term prognosis.
Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was studied in 504 women aged
To assess the effects of intraoperative left atrial epicardial cryoablation on rhythm and atrial and ventricular function.
Thirty five patients with coronary artery disease and documented atrial fibrillation underwent coronary artery bypass surgery and concomitant cryoablation. An age and gender matched control group of 35 patients with atrial fibrillation underwent bypass surgery alone. Echocardiography was performed 9 ? 32 days before and 22 ? 6 months after surgery.
The proportion of patients in sinus rhythm at follow-up was 63% and 34% (p = 0.04) in the cryoablation and control groups, respectively. In patients with sinus rhythm both before surgery and at follow-up, the left atrial area increased (p = 0.002) and the mitral annular excursion during atrial contraction decreased (p = 0.01) after cryoablation. The mitral flow velocity during atrial systole decreased after cryoablation (p = 0.002). The LV diameter increased (p = 0.03) and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased (p = 0.03) in cryoablated but not in control patients. Continued deterioration was seen in patients with atrial fibrillation both pre- and postoperatively.
At long-term follow-up, a significantly higher proportion of patients was in sinus rhythm in the cryoablation than in the control group. The atrial and ventricular function had decreased at follow-up two years after surgery. This decrease was small and occurred within or close to the reference values in patients with sinus rhythm at follow-up, while patients remaining in atrial fibrillation showed a significant continued deterioration. Some subgroups were small, and the findings, although statistically significant, should be interpreted with caution.
Cites: Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 Dec;90(6):1959-6621095346
In patients with diabetes and obesity specifically, no studies have examined mortality after bariatric surgery. We did a nationwide study in Sweden to examine risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with obesity and diabetes who had undergone bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB]).
In this nationwide, matched, observational cohort study, we merged data for patients who had undergone RYGB registered in the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry with other national databases, and identified matched controls (on the basis of sex, age, BMI, and calendar time [year]) who had not undergone bariatric surgery from the National Diabetes Registry. We assessed risks of cardiovascular disease and death using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model and other methods to examine the treatment effect while accounting for residual confounding. Primary outcomes were total mortality, cardiovascular death, and fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction.
Between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, we obtained data for 6132 patients who had undergone RYGB and 6132 control patients who had not. Median follow-up was 3·5 years (IQR 2·1-4·7). We noted a 58% relative risk reduction (hazard ratio [HR] 0·42, 95% CI 0·30-0·57; p
CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate common etiologies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relation between CVD and risk of hip fracture in twins and evaluate the relative importance of genetics and lifestyle factors in this association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of all 31,936 Swedish twins born from 1914-1944 was followed up from the age of 50 years. The National Patient Registry identified twins with CVDs and fractures from 1964 through 2005. Time-dependent exposures using Cox proportional hazard regression models were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time to hip fracture after diagnosis of CVD. RESULTS: The crude absolute rate of hip fractures was 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of heart failure, 12.6 per 1000 person-years after a stroke, 6.6 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, and 5.2 per 1000 person-years after a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease compared with 1.2 per 1000 person-years for those without a CVD diagnosis. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture after a diagnosis of heart failure was 4.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43-5.63); after a stroke, the HR was 5.09 (95% CI, 4.18-6.20); after a diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis, the HR was 3.20 (95% CI, 2.28-4.50); and after an ischemic heart disease event, the HR was 2.32 (95% CI, 1.91-2.84). Identical twins without heart failure and stroke also had, after their co-twins had been exposed to these respective diseases, an increased rate of hip fracture. These sibling twins pseudoexposed for heart failure had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 3.74 (95% CI, 1.97-7.10) for hip fracture, whereas pseudoexposure for stroke had an HR of 2.29 (95% CI, 1.20-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of CVD was significantly associated with risk of subsequent hip fracture. Increased risks in co-twins without an index diagnosis suggest genetic factors in the association between CVD and osteoporotic fractures.
Total longitudinal displacement (tLoD) of the common carotid artery can be measured using the ultrasound-based velocity vector imaging (VVI) technique. This study aimed to investigate clinical correlates and the possible predictive value of tLoD for cardiovascular outcome.
Four hundred forty-one patients referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy examination for suspected coronary artery disease were recruited and underwent VVI-assisted tLoD measurement. Patients were followed up with regard to major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) 1 year later. Low tLoD (= 0.055 mm) was associated with greater clinically determined myocardial ischemia (P0.055 mm) predicted 1-year event-free survival (P
Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) is a syndrome characterized by transient myocardial dysfunction with unknown etiology. Although recent studies have suggested that the syndrome is associated with comorbidity and has a dismal prognosis, there is a lack of comprehensive data describing the epidemiology and prognosis of TSC.
This study compared risk markers and mortality in patients with TSC with that of individuals with or without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Patients with TSC and control subjects were identified from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register between 2009 and 2013 and linked with the Swedish national patient registry, cause of death registry, prescription drug registry, and education and income registries.
Patients with TSC were characterized by a low cardiovascular risk factor profile but with increased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, migraine, and affective disorders. The use of beta-blockers was less common but use of ß2-adrenergic agonist agents was more common in patients with TSC compared with either of the control groups. Being a patient with TSC was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.1 for death compared with the control subjects without CAD (95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 3.2). This was similar to the excess mortality risk seen among the CAD control subjects compared with control subjects without CAD (hazard ratio: 2.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.8 to 3.3). These associations remained significant after adjusting for CAD risk factors and risk markers for TSC.
The findings of increased risk associated with ß2-adrenergic agonist agents together with stress related to affective disorders emphasize the pathogenic role of sympathetic stimulation. The prognosis regarding mortality is worse than in control subjects without CAD and similar to patients with CAD emphasizing the urgent need for studies on optimal treatment of TSC.
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Apr 26;67(16):1937-4027102509