Patient adherence is critical in evaluating the effectiveness of an oral therapy. We sought to measure adherence among women randomly assigned to capecitabine in a preplanned substudy of a multicenter clinical trial.
Cancer and Leukemia Group B study CALGB 49907 was a randomly assigned trial comparing standard chemotherapy versus oral chemotherapy with capecitabine in patients age 65 years or older with early-stage breast cancer. We used microelectronic monitoring system (MEMS) caps on participants' capecitabine bottles to record pill bottle openings. Capecitabine was given in two divided daily doses for 14 consecutive days of a 21-day cycle for six cycles. Adherence was calculated as the number of doses taken divided by doses expected, taking into account toxicity-related dosing changes. A participant was defined as adherent if 80% or more of expected doses were recorded by MEMS.
Overall, 161 patients were enrolled. Median age was 71 years (range, 65 to 89 years); 124 patients (83%) persisted with capecitabine to completion of planned protocol therapy. Adherence was 78% across all cycles, and adherence did not vary by cycle (P = .32). Twenty-five percent of participants took fewer than 80% of expected doses and were nonadherent. In a logistic regression model, participants with node-negative disease (P = .01) and mastectomy (P = .01) were more likely to be nonadherent. Adherence was not related to age, tumor stage, or hormone receptor status. Adherence was not significantly associated with relapse-free survival or grade 3 or 4 toxicity.
Most older women with early-stage breast cancer were adherent to short-term oral chemotherapy in a randomized clinical trial. Age was not associated with adherence.
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The primary goal in management of chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is to prevent disease progression to accelerated phase (AP) or blast crisis (BC). We have evaluated progression rates in a decentralised healthcare setting and characterised patients progressing to AP/BC on TKI treatment.
Using data from the Swedish CML register, we identified CP-CML patients diagnosed 2007-2011 who progressed to AP/BC within 2 yrs from diagnosis (n = 18) as well as patients diagnosed in advanced phase during 2007-2012 (n = 36) from a total of 544 newly diagnosed CML cases. We evaluated baseline characteristics, progression rates, outcome and adherence to guidelines for monitoring and treatment.
The cumulative progression rate at 2 yrs was 4.3%. All 18 progression cases had been treated with imatinib, and six progressed within 6 months. High-risk EUTOS score was associated to a higher risk of progression. Insufficient cytogenetic and/or molecular monitoring was found in 33%. Median survival after transformation during TKI treatment was 1.4 yrs. In those presenting with BC and AP, median survival was 1.6 yrs and not reached, respectively.
In this population-based setting, progression rates appear comparable to that reported from clinical trials, with similar dismal patient outcome. Improved adherence to CML guidelines may minimise the risk of disease progression.
Recent pre-clinical models suggest that radiation can promote tumor aggressiveness. We hypothesized that if this were occurring clinically, locoregional recurrences (LRRs) after postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) would lead to lower survival than LRR after mastectomy alone. This study used two independent datasets to compare survival after LRR in women treated with versus without PMRT. Data from 229 LRR cases among 1,500 patients enrolled on prospective trials at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA), and 66 LRR cases among 318 patients enrolled in the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) PMRT randomized trial were analyzed. In the MDA non-randomized dataset, 189/1031 had LRR after mastectomy alone and 40/469 had LRR after PMRT. In the randomized BC trial dataset, 52/158 had LRR after mastectomy alone and 14/160 had LRR after PMRT. In both datasets, survival was calculated from the time of LRR to death. Analysis of MDA data shows that in all LRR cases regardless of distant metastasis (DM), 5/10-year OS were 50/34% without PMRT and 27/19% after PMRT (P = 0.006). However, PMRT-treated patients had increased risk factors for DM (advanced T and N stages) and more PMRT-treated patients developed DM prior to LRR (63 vs. 34%, P = 0.005). Analyzing only patients will an isolated LRR (without previous or simultaneous, DMV), there was no OS difference between groups (P = 0.33). Analysis of BCCA data shows that distributions of T and N stages were similar in patients with LRR after mastectomy alone versus after PMRT. DM free survival after any LRR and after isolated LRR were similar in mastectomy alone versus PMRT-treated patients (P = 0.75, P = 0.26, respectively). Overall survival after any LRR and after isolated LRR were also similar in the two groups (P = 0.93, P = 0.28, respectively). Patients who develop LRR after mastectomy alone have high rates of DM and poor OS but these rates are not affected by the use of PMRT at the time of primary treatment. These data do not support the hypothesis that irradiation promotes biologically aggressive local recurrences.
Despite advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a great proportion of patients are eligible only for palliative therapy for reasons of advanced-stage disease or poor hepatic reserve. The use of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the palliation of non-resectable HCC has shown a survival benefit in European and Asian populations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of TACE by analysing overall 5-year survival, interval changes of tumour size and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in a prospective North American cohort.
From September 2005 to December 2010, 46 candidates for TACE were enrolled in the study. Collectively, they underwent 102 TACE treatments. Data on tumour response, serum AFP and survival were prospectively collected.
In compensated cirrhotic patients, serial treatment with TACE had a stabilizing effect on tumour size and reduced serum AFP levels during the first 12 months. Overall survival rates at 1, 2 and 3 years were 69%, 58% and 20%, respectively. Younger individuals and patients with a lower body mass index, affected by early-stage HCC with involvement of a single lobe, had better survival in univariate analysis. After adjustment for risk factors, early tumour stage (T1 and T2 vs. T3 and T4) at diagnosis was the only statistically significant predictor for survival.
In compensated cirrhotic patients, TACE is an effective palliative intervention and HCC stage at diagnosis seems to be the most important predictor of longterm outcomes.
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We determined the associations between comorbidity, and overall survival and bladder cancer specific survival after radical cystectomy.
The Alberta Urology Institute Radical Cystectomy database is an ongoing multi-institutional computerized database containing data on all adult patients with a diagnosis of primary bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy in Edmonton, Canada from April 1994 forward. The current study is an analysis of consecutive database patients treated between April 1994 and September 2007. Comorbidity information was obtained through a medical record review using the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 instrument. The outcome measures were overall survival and bladder cancer specific survival. Cox proportional regression analysis was used to determine the associations between comorbidity, and overall survival and bladder cancer specific survival.
Of the database patients 160 (34%), 225 (48%) and 83 (18%) had no/mild comorbidity, moderate comorbidity and severe comorbidity, respectively. Compared to patients with no or mild comorbidity, multivariate Cox proportional regression analyses that included age, adjuvant chemotherapy, surgeon procedure volume, pathological T stage, pathological lymph node status, total number of lymph nodes removed, surgical margin status and lymphovascular invasion showed that increased comorbidity was independently associated with overall survival (moderate HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.16-2.18, p = 0.004; severe HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.22-2.72, p = 0.003) and bladder cancer specific survival (moderate HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.15, p = 0.028; severe HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04-2.62, p = 0.034).
Increased comorbidity was independently associated with an increased risk of overall mortality and bladder cancer specific mortality after radical cystectomy.
Despite their pivotal roles in colorectal carcinogenesis, the interrelationship and prognostic significance of beta-catenin alterations and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer (CRC) needs to be further clarified. In this paper, we studied the associations between beta-catenin overexpression and MSI status with survival from CRC, and with expression of p21, p27, cyclin D1 and p53, in a large, prospective cohort study.
Immunohistochemical MSI-screening status and expression of p21, p27 and p53 was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 557 cases of incident CRC in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Chi Square and Spearman's correlation tests were used to explore the associations between beta-catenin expression, MSI status, clinicopathological characteristics and investigative parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the relationship between beta-catenin overexpression, MSI status and cancer specific survival (CSS).
Positive MSI screening status was significantly associated with older age, female sex, proximal tumour location, non-metastatic disease, and poor differentiation, and inversely associated with beta-catenin overexpression. Beta-catenin overexpression was significantly associated with distal tumour location, low T-stage and well-differentiated tumours. Patients with MSI tumours had a significantly prolonged CSS in the whole cohort, and in stage III-IV disease, also in multivariable analysis, but not in stage I-II disease. Beta-catenin overexpression was associated with a favourable prognosis in the full cohort and in patients with stage III-IV disease. Neither MSI nor beta-catenin status were predictive for response to adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively treated stage III patients. P53 and p27 expression was positively associated with beta-catenin overexpression and inversely associated with MSI. Cyclin D1 expression was positively associated with MSI and beta-catenin overexpression, and p21 expression was positively associated with MSI but not beta-catenin overexpression.
Findings from this large, prospective cohort study demonstrate that MSI screening status in colorectal cancer is an independent prognostic factor, but not in localized disease, and does not predict response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Beta-catenin overexpression was also associated with favourable outcome but not a treatment predictive factor. Associations of MSI and beta-catenin alterations with other investigative and clinicopathological factors were in line with the expected.
The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8778585058652609.
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The prognostic significance of Ki67 expression in cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is unclear. This may be partly attributed to the lack of consensus surrounding the optimal approach for measuring tumour Ki67 expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different measures of Ki67 expression and disease-specific survival (DSS) in OSCC.
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were assembled from triplicate cores of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) pre-treatment tumour tissue obtained from 121 OSCC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2006. Ki67 expression was quantified using fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and AQUAnalysis® in normal oral cavity squamous epithelium (OCSE) and OSCC tumour samples. Intensity and percentage-based approaches for Ki67 scoring were tested for their association with survival.
Ki67 scores obtained from intensity and percentage-based approaches had similar associations with prognosis. We also found that high basal (lowest observed in triplicate cores) Ki67 expression was more strongly associated with improved 5-year disease-specific survival than hot-spot and average Ki67 measurements. The association of high basal Ki67 expression with improved prognosis was most pronounced in patients who received postoperative radiation. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the basal Ki67 expression is an independent prognostic marker in our OSCC cohort when adjusted for pathological T-stage, nodal status and treatment.
Our study provides a framework for reaching a consensus on the optimal approach for measuring Ki67 expression in cancers. Our results suggest that rigorous comparisons of measurement approaches should be applied in a tumour-type and treatment-specific manner to enhance the clinical application of Ki67 assessment.
Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is an increasingly commonly used surgical treatment option for prostate cancer (PCa); however, its longer-term oncologic results remain uncertain.
To report biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) outcomes for men who underwent RARP =5 yr ago at a single European centre.
A total of 944 patients underwent RARP as monotherapy for PCa from January 2002 to December 2006 at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Standard clinicopathologic variables were recorded and entered into a secure, ethics-approved database made up of those men with registered domiciles in Stockholm. The median follow-up time was 6.3 yr (interquartile range: 5.6-7.2).
The outcome of this study was biochemical recurrence (BCR), defined as a confirmed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of =0.2 ng/ml. Kaplan-Meier survival plots with log-rank tests, as well as Cox univariable and multivariable regression analyses, were used to determine BRFS estimates and determine predictors of PSA relapse, respectively.
The BRFS for the entire cohort at median follow-up was 84.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.2-87.1); estimates at 5, 7, and 9 yr were 87.1% (95% CI, 84.8-89.2), 84.5% (95% CI, 81.8-86.8), and 82.6% (95% CI, 79.0-85.6), respectively. Nine and 19 patients died of PCa and other causes, respectively, giving end-of-follow-up Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 98.0% (95% CI, 95.5-99.1) and 94.1% (95% CI, 90.4-96.4), respectively. Preoperative PSA >10, postoperative Gleason sum =4 + 3, pathologic T3 disease, positive surgical margin status, and lower surgeon volume were associated with increased risk of BCR on multivariable analysis. This study is limited by a lack of nodal status and tumour volume, which may have confounded our findings.
This case series from a single, high-volume, European centre demonstrates that RARP has satisfactory medium-term BRFS. Further follow-up is necessary to determine how this finding will translate into cancer-specific and overall survival outcomes.
It is unknown whether performing a core needle biopsy (CNB) to diagnose breast cancer increases the incidence of isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the axillary sentinel lymph nodes.
Patients diagnosed with unilateral invasive pT1 breast cancer (=2 cm in diameter, n = 1525) at a single center between February 2001 and August 2005 were included in this prospective observational cohort study. The patients were categorized into two groups according to the type of the preoperative breast needle biopsy performed, the CNB and the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) groups, and followed up for a median of 9.5 years after breast surgery.
868 (56.9%) patients had FNAC and 657 (43.2%) CNB. In the subset of patients with no axillary metastases (pN0, n = 1005) 70 patients had ITC, 37 (4.3%) out of the 546 patients in FNAC group and 33 (5.0%) out of the 459 patients in the CNB group (p = 0.798). The type of tumor biopsy did not influence breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.461) or local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.814) in univariable survival analyses. Overall, survival favored the CNB group in a univariable analysis, but no difference in survival emerged in a multivariable analysis (p = 0.718).
CNB was not associated with a greater incidence of ITC in axillary lymph nodes as compared with FNAC, and did not have an adverse effect on survival outcomes in a patient population treated with modern adjuvant therapies.
Age and tumor subtype are prognostic factors for breast cancer survival, but it is unclear which matters the most. We used population-based data to address this question. We identified 21,384 women diagnosed with breast cancer at ages 20-89 between 2005 and 2015 in the Cancer Registry of Norway. Subtype was defined using estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status as luminal A-like (ER+PR+HER2-), luminal B-like HER2-negative (ER+PR-HER2-), luminal B-like HER2-positive (ER+PR+/-HER2+), HER2-positive (ER-PR-HER2+) and triple-negative (TNBC) (ER-PR-HER2-). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) for breast cancer-specific 7-year survival by age and subtype, while adjusting for year, grade, TNM stage and treatment. Young women more often had HER2-positive and TNBC tumors, while elderly women (70-89) more often had luminal A-like tumors. Compared to age 50-59, young women had doubled breast cancer-specific mortality rate (HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.81-2.82), while elderly had two to five times higher mortality rate (70-79: HR = 2.25, 1.87-2.71; 80-89: HR = 5.19, 4.21-6.41). After adjustments, the association was non-significant among young women but remained high among elderly. Young age was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality among luminal A-like subtype, while old age was associated with increased mortality in all subtypes. Age and subtype were strong independent prognostic factors. The elderly always did worse, also after adjustment for subtype. Tumor-associated factors (subtype, grade and stage) largely explained the higher breast cancer-specific mortality among young. Future studies should address why luminal A-like subtype is associated with a higher mortality rate in young women.