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A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288173
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ola Ståhlberg
Sofia Boman
Christina Robertsson
Nóra Kerekes
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence
Residential Treatment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54-.84, p=.02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
27745884 View in PubMed
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Co-offending and the diversification of crime types.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134990
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2012 Aug;56(5):811-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Martin A Andresen
Marcus Felson
Author Affiliation
School of Criminology, Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. andresen@sfu.ca
Source
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2012 Aug;56(5):811-29
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
British Columbia
Causality
Child
Crime - classification - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Prisoners - legislation & jurisprudence
Recurrence
Risk factors
Social Facilitation
Social Identification
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
There is theoretical and empirical support for co-offending being important not only for understanding current offending but also subsequent offending. The fundamental question is--why? In this article, an aggregate analysis is performed that begins to answer this question. Disaggregating solo- and co-offending by single year of age (12-29 years) and crime type in a largely metropolitan data set from British Columbia, Canada, 2002 to 2006, it is shown that the distribution of co-offences is significantly more varied than the distribution of solo offences. This more varied distribution of co-offences favors property crimes during youth but fades as offenders age.
PubMed ID
21518703 View in PubMed
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Juvenile and young adult mentally disordered offenders: the role of child neuropsychiatric disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31796
Source
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2001;29(4):420-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
L. Siponmaa
M. Kristiansson
C. Jonson
A. Nydén
C. Gillberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden. leila.siponmaa@rmv.se
Source
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2001;29(4):420-6
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Asperger Syndrome - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - psychology
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Forensic Psychiatry
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Tourette Syndrome - epidemiology - psychology
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A retrospective study of the prevalence of child neuropsychiatric disorders was done involving pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome in young offenders (15-22 years, n = 126) consecutively referred for presentencing forensic psychiatric investigation (FPI) in Stockholm, Sweden. Most offenders were referred for FPI because of serious offenses. Case report sheets were prepared, and retrospective neuropsychiatric DSM IV diagnoses were made by the first two authors. For best-estimated diagnoses, the case report sheets were then submitted to the fifth author, a child neuropsychiatrist with expertise in this area. Fifteen percent of the subjects had a definite diagnosis of ADHD, and another 15 percent had PDD, including 12 percent PDD not otherwise specified (NOS) and 3 percent Asperger syndrome. Autistic disorder was not found in any case. Tourette syndrome occurred in two percent of the cases. The rate of PDD is particularly striking. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses had been determined in the FPI in only a few cases. The contribution of constitutional problems to later criminal development may have been underestimated.
PubMed ID
11785613 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of reading and spelling difficulties among inmates of institutions for compulsory care of juvenile delinquents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32155
Source
Dyslexia. 2001 Apr-Jun;7(2):62-76
Publication Type
Article
Author
I. Svensson
I. Lundberg
C. Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Department of Education, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
Source
Dyslexia. 2001 Apr-Jun;7(2):62-76
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dyslexia - epidemiology - psychology
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Learning Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Male
Prisoners - psychology
Residential Treatment
Sex Factors
Sweden
Verbal Learning
Abstract
Recent studies have focused on reading and writing disabilities among inmates in prisons and at juvenile institutions. Some studies in Sweden have demonstrated that more than half of the delinquents have serious reading difficulties, and for immigrants the situation is even worse. However, these studies have focused on small groups. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to different types of reading and writing difficulties. The main purpose of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of reading and writing disabilities in juvenile institutions. The study analyses gender differences and differences between immigrants and Swedish pupils. The study included 163 pupils from 22 institutions and used three tests of literacy skills: word identification, spelling and reading comprehension. More than 70% showed some problems in reading and spelling. However, only 11% had serious difficulties. Moreover, the results showed that comprehension ability among immigrant boys was lower than among Swedish boys, despite the same level of word reading skill. The high prevalence of reading and writing disabilities seems primarily to be related to social and cultural factors, home backgrounds, limited school attendance and poor self-esteem rather than to constitutional problems of a dyslexic nature. The implication of this conclusion may be important for the intervention process.
PubMed ID
11383304 View in PubMed
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Psychosocial correlates of police-registered youth crime. A Finnish population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152510
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(4):292-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Henrik Elonheimo
Andre Sourander
Solja Niemelä
Ari-Matti Nuutila
Hans Helenius
Lauri Sillanmäki
Terja Ristkari
Kai Parkkola
Author Affiliation
University of Turku, Turku Fl-20014, Finland. henelo@utu.fi
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(4):292-300
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Life Change Events
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Police - legislation & jurisprudence
Recurrence
Regression Analysis
Resilience, Psychological
Risk factors
Social Adjustment
Socioeconomic Factors
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study is focused on psychosocial correlates of youth crime in a sample of 2330 Finnish boys born in 1981. Two kinds of data were combined: questionnaires completed by the boys at call-up in 1999 and crime registered in the Finnish National Police Register between 1998 and 2001. One-fifth of the boys were registered to offending during the 4-year period in late adolescence; 14% were registered for one or two offences, 4% for three to five offences, and 3% for more than five offences. Crime accumulated heavily in those with more than five offences, as they accounted for 68% of all crime. Independent correlates of crime were living in a small community, parents' low educational level and divorce, having a regular relationship, self-reported delinquency, daily smoking, and weekly drunkenness, whereas anxious-depressiveness was reversely associated with crime. Most psychosocial problems covaried linearly with offending frequency, being particularly manifested by multiple recidivists. However, recidivists had very rarely used mental health services. The results indicate that offending and various psychosocial problems accumulate in a small minority of boys not reached by mental health services.
PubMed ID
19229735 View in PubMed
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