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A 3-year follow-up study of Swedish youths committed to juvenile institutions: Frequent occurrence of criminality and health care use regardless of drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288173
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ola Ståhlberg
Sofia Boman
Christina Robertsson
Nóra Kerekes
Henrik Anckarsäter
Thomas Nilsson
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2017 Jan - Feb;50:52-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Recurrence
Residential Treatment - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden
Violence - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This 3-year follow-up study compares background variables, extent of criminality and criminal recidivism in the form of all court convictions, the use of inpatient care, and number of early deaths in Swedish institutionalized adolescents (N=100) with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (n=25) versus those with SUD but no ADHD (n=30), and those without SUD (n=45). In addition it aims to identify whether potential risk factors related to these groups are associated with persistence in violent criminality. Results showed almost no significant differences between the three diagnostic groups, but the SUD plus ADHD group displayed a somewhat more negative outcome with regard to criminality, and the non-SUD group stood out with very few drug related treatment episodes. However, the rate of criminal recidivism was strikingly high in all three groups, and the use of inpatient care as well as the number of untimely deaths recorded in the study population was dramatically increased compared to a age matched general population group. Finally, age at first conviction emerged as the only significant predictor of persistence in violent criminality with an AUC of .69 (CI (95%) .54-.84, p=.02). Regardless of whether SUD, with or without ADHD, is at hand or not, institutionalized adolescents describe a negative course with extensive criminality and frequent episodes of inpatient treatment, and thus requires a more effective treatment than present youth institutions seem to offer today. However, the few differences found between the three groups, do give some support that those with comorbid SUD and ADHD have the worst prognosis with regard to criminality, health, and untimely death, and as such are in need of even more extensive treatment interventions.
PubMed ID
27745884 View in PubMed
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Adapting the concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162952
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2007 Jul;22(7):791-811
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Páll Biering
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. pb@hi.is
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2007 Jul;22(7):791-811
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Caregivers - psychology
Feasibility Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology
Male
Models, Psychological
Nursing Methodology Research
Parent-Child Relations
Parents - psychology
Questionnaires
Violence - psychology
Abstract
This study explores the feasibility of adapting Kleinman's concept of explanatory models of illness to the study of youth violence and is conducted within the hermeneutic tradition. Data were collected by interviewing 11 violent adolescents, their parents, and their caregivers. Four types of explanatory models representing the adolescent girls', the adolescent boys', the caregivers', and the parents' understanding of youth violence are found; they correspond sufficiently to Kleinman's concept and establish the feasibility of adapting it to the study of youth violence. The developmental nature of the parents' and adolescents' models makes it feasible to study them by means of hermeneutic methodology. There are some clinically significant discrepancies between the caregivers' and the clients' explanatory models; identifying such discrepancies is an essential step in the process of breaking down barriers to therapeutic communications. Violent adolescents should be encouraged to define their own explanatory models of violence through dialogue with their caregivers.
PubMed ID
17575063 View in PubMed
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Adolescence-limited versus life-course-persistent criminal behaviour in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199645
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Dec;8(4):276-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1999
Author
E. Kjelsberg
Author Affiliation
Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Dec;8(4):276-82
Date
Dec-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Crime
Female
Hospitalization
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Registries
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Abstract
A nation-wide sample of 1072 Norwegian adolescent psychiatric inpatients were followed up 15-33 (mean 23.8) years after hospitalisation, by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. Defining criminal behaviour as entry into the criminal registry, 481 patients (45%) had an adolescent criminal debut, entering the registry before the age of 21. Of these, 130 (27%) had no criminal record after the age of 21 and were consequently considered as adolescence-limited criminal offenders, as opposed to the remaining 351 (73%) individuals who continued their criminal behaviour beyond the age of 21 and were considered as life-course-persistent criminal offenders. On the basis of hospital records, all patients were rediagnosed according to DSM-IV and scored on factors hypothesised to have predictive power as to persistence of criminal behaviour. We found that 79.6% of the male, and 58.8% of the female adolescent delinquents went on to life-course-persistent criminality. In females, intravenous use of illegal drugs, and being discharged from the hospital elsewhere than to the family home, were strong and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminal behaviour. In males, the following were significant and independent predictors of life-course-persistent criminality: a high number of conduct disorder criteria fulfilled, comorbidity of psychoactive substance use disorder, and having attended correctional school.
PubMed ID
10654121 View in PubMed
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Adolescent boys' physical fighting and adult life outcomes: Examining the interplay with intelligence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308569
Source
Aggress Behav. 2020 01; 46(1):72-83
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2020
Author
Lars Roar Frøyland
Tilmann von Soest
Author Affiliation
NOVA-Norwegian Social Research, OsloMet-Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Aggress Behav. 2020 01; 46(1):72-83
Date
01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Humans
Intelligence
Juvenile Delinquency
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Norway
Abstract
Although it is well known that adolescent delinquent behavior is related to poor outcomes in adulthood, longitudinal research on specific acts of delinquency and their interplay with important individual characteristics in predicting future outcomes is scarce. We aimed to examine how physical fighting-one of the most common acts of violent delinquency among adolescent boys-is related to adult life success in several domains, and how intelligence influences these associations. The study used data from 1,083 boys that participated in the population-based longitudinal Young in Norway Study, following adolescents from 1992 to 2015, by combining self-reports at four time points with comprehensive information from registers. Results showed that adolescent boys' physical fighting was associated with poor adult outcomes in the domains of employment, education, and criminal behavior. Associations remained significant even after controlling for conduct problems in general-which isolated the effects of fighting from other delinquent acts-as well as from a variety of other potential confounders. Detailed analyses on the interplay of physical fighting and intelligence showed that some parts of the associations between adolescent boys' fighting and several adverse adult outcomes could be ascribed to lower intelligence among the fighters. Moreover, intelligence moderated the relationship between physical fighting and adult education. Adolescent fighting was not related to educational attainment among boys with high intelligence, whereas boys with lower intelligence experienced detrimental effects of adolescent fighting. The analyses show the importance of considering adolescent boys' physical fighting as a potential risk factor for future social marginalization.
PubMed ID
31631354 View in PubMed
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Adolescent criminality: multiple adverse health outcomes and mortality pattern in Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300893
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 11; 19(1):400
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-11-2019
Author
Marlene Stenbacka
Tomas Moberg
Jussi Jokinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. marlene.stenbacka@ki.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Apr 11; 19(1):400
Date
Apr-11-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aggression
Cohort Studies
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Criminals - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the impact of adolescent violent and non-violent criminality and subsequent risk of morbidity and mortality in adulthood in a large Swedish cohort of young men conscripted for military service in 1969/70.
The cohort consisted of 49,398 18-year-old Swedish conscripts followed up for morbidity and mortality up to the age of 55?years in Swedish national registers. Information about convictions for crime before conscription was obtained from national crime registers. Data from a survey at conscription were scrutinized to get information on potential confounders.
Hospitalization due to alcohol and drug related diagnoses and attempted suicide were significantly more evident in the violent group compared to non-violent criminals and non-criminals. More than one fifth (21.13%) of the young violent offenders, 12.90% of the non-violent offenders and 4.96% of the non-criminals had died during the follow-up period. In Cox proportional multivariate analyses, young violent offenders had twice the hazard (HR?=?4.29) of all-cause mortality than the non-violent offenders (HR?=?2.16) during the follow-up period. Alcohol and drug related mortality, suicide and fatal accidents were most evident in both violent and non-violent offenders.
Men with adolescent criminality received more inpatient care due to alcohol and drug related diagnoses and attempted suicide as adults. Mortality due to unnatural causes, alcohol, and drug related diagnoses, suicide and accidents was most evident in violent offenders, while these causes of death were much lower in non-criminals. Men with adolescent criminality are a high-risk group for multiple adverse health outcomes and for early death. Efforts for detection of substance use and psychiatric disorders in this group is important for the prevention work in both local- and community levels as well as national prevention programs.
PubMed ID
30975117 View in PubMed
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Adolescent drug sellers: trends, characteristics and profiles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222804
Source
Br J Addict. 1992 Nov;87(11):1561-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1992
Author
R G Smart
E M Adlaf
G W Walsh
Author Affiliation
Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Br J Addict. 1992 Nov;87(11):1561-70
Date
Nov-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Alcohol Drinking
Canada
Cannabis
Designer Drugs
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency
Life Style
Male
Ontario
Prevalence
Schools
Social Problems - statistics & numerical data - trends
Street Drugs - classification
Students
Substance-Related Disorders
Abstract
This study examines drug selling among representative samples of high school students in Ontario. It involves three approaches, (i) examining the trend in drug selling between 1983 and 1989, (ii) assessing differences between sellers and non-sellers on demographic characteristics, levels of alcohol and drug use, and problems, and (iii) drawing detailed profiles of drug seller types. Drug selling declined considerably between 1983 and 1989. Sellers were more likely to be males and to use alcohol and drugs more often than non-sellers. Sellers also had more alcohol and drug problems and engaged in more delinquent acts. Drug sellers who sold cannabis only were less frequent users of drugs, less likely to have drug problems, and were also delinquent.
PubMed ID
1458035 View in PubMed
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Adolescent girls in need of protection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245887
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1980 Apr;50(2):264-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1980
Author
J A Byles
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1980 Apr;50(2):264-78
Date
Apr-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child Abuse
Child Welfare
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - rehabilitation
Mental Disorders - rehabilitation
Ontario
Prisons
Residential Treatment
Runaway Behavior
Suicide - psychology
Abstract
This descriptive study of 120 girls removed temporarily from parental care during early adolescence raises questions regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of current intervention strategies. The findings suggest that clinical and legal efforts on behalf of girls such as these, who have been victims of neglect, deprivation, and abuse, are likely to remain unsatisfactory in the absence of a broad societal commitment to the needs and rights of children.
PubMed ID
7361875 View in PubMed
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Adolescent risk behaviours and psychological distress across immigrant generations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150459
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):221-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Hayley A Hamilton
Samuel Noh
Edward M Adlaf
Author Affiliation
Social Equity and Health Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 455 Spadina Ave., Suite 300, Toronto, ON M55 2G8. hayley_hamilton@camh.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):221-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Age Factors
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Depression - epidemiology
Education
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Parents
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk-Taking
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
To examine disparities in hazardous and harmful drinking, illicit drug use, delinquency, and psychological distress among three immigrant generations of youth.
Data on 4,069 students were derived from the 2005 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a province-wide school-based survey of 7th to 12th graders. The survey employed a two-stage cluster design (school, class). Analyses include adjustments for the complex survey design, specifically stratification, clusters, and weights.
Both drug use and hazardous and harmful drinking increase across immigrant generations. First-generation youth report significantly less use than second-generation youth, who in turn report less use than third and later generations. Generational differences in the levels of hazardous and harmful drinking increase with age. Delinquency is significantly less among first-generation youth relative to youth of other immigrant generations. Symptoms of psychological distress are highest among first-generation youth compared to youth of other immigrant generations.
The nature of differences between foreign- and native-born adolescents varies across behaviours. As such, it is important to gain knowledge about the adjustment levels of these two groups with regard to specific components of well-being. Such knowledge is necessary for developing policies and programs to promote emotional and behavioural health.
PubMed ID
19507727 View in PubMed
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293 records – page 1 of 30.