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Academic judgments under uncertainty: A study of collective anchoring effects in Swedish Research Council panel groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301826
Source
Soc Stud Sci. 2017 02; 47(1):95-116
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2017
Author
Lambros Roumbanis
Author Affiliation
Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (Score), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Soc Stud Sci. 2017 02; 47(1):95-116
Date
02-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Advisory Committees
Bias
Decision Making
Heuristics
Humans
Judgment
Peer Review, Research
Sweden
Abstract
This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council. The analysis suggests that collective anchoring effects emerge as a result of the combination of the evaluation techniques that are being used (grading scales and average ranking) and the efforts of the evaluators to reach consensus in the face of disagreements and uncertainty in the group. What many commentators and evaluators have interpreted as an element of chance in the peer review process may also be understood as partly a result of the dynamic aspects of collective anchoring effects.
PubMed ID
28195028 View in PubMed
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Accessibility effects on implicit social cognition: the role of knowledge activation and retrieval experiences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171536
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Nov;89(5):672-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
Bertram Gawronski
Galen V Bodenhausen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. bgawrons@uwo.ca
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Nov;89(5):672-85
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Americans
Analysis of Variance
Association
Cognition
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Judgment
Male
Memory
Ontario
Psychological Theory
Race Relations
Reaction Time
Semantics
Social Perception
Stereotyping
United States
Abstract
Performance on measures of implicit social cognition has been shown to vary as a function of the momentary accessibility of relevant information. The present research investigated the mechanisms underlying accessibility effects of self-generated information on implicit measures. Results from 3 experiments demonstrate that measures based on response compatibility processes (e.g., Implicit Association Test, affective priming with an evaluative decision task) are influenced by subjective feelings pertaining to the ease of retrieving relevant information from memory, whereas measures based on stimulus compatibility processes (e.g., semantic priming with a lexical-decision task) are influenced by direct knowledge activation in associative memory. These results indicate that the mediating mechanisms underlying context effects on implicit measures can differ as a function of the task even when these tasks show similar effects on a superficial level. Implications for research on implicit social cognition and the ease-of-retrieval effect are discussed.
PubMed ID
16351361 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of patient interviews and estimates by clinical staff in determining medication compliance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244767
Source
Soc Sci Med E. 1981 Feb;15(1):57-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1981

The acoustic voice quality index version 02.02 in the Finnish-speaking population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311465
Source
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2020 Jul; 45(2):49-56
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Study
Date
Jul-2020
Author
Elina Kankare
Ben Barsties V Latoszek
Youri Maryn
Marja Asikainen
Eija Rorarius
Sarkku Vilpas
Irma Ilomäki
Jaana Tyrmi
Leena Rantala
Anne-Maria Laukkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Phoniatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2020 Jul; 45(2):49-56
Date
Jul-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Validation Study
Keywords
Acoustics
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Dysphonia - diagnosis - physiopathology
Female
Finland
Humans
Judgment
Male
Middle Aged
Observer Variation
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Speech Acoustics
Speech Perception
Speech Production Measurement
Voice Quality
Young Adult
Abstract
Background: The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a multiparametric tool for objectively measuring the general acoustic characteristics of voice. The AVQI uses both sustained vowel and continuous speech in its analysis, and therefore, a validation is required for different languages. In the present study, validation was performed in the Finnish-speaking population.Methods: The study included 200 native Finnish-speaking participants of whom 115 were voice patients attending a phoniatric clinic, and the remaining 85 subjects participated in the study as healthy controls. Voice samples were recorded, and the auditory evaluation was performed by five speech therapists. An ordinal four-point interval scale was used to evaluate the degree of voice abnormality (Grade, G). Several statistical analyses were performed to test the validity and the diagnostic accuracy of the AVQI in the Finnish-speaking population.Results: The inter-rater reliability of four of the five raters was high enough to allow the use of Gmean in the validation. There was a statistically significant correlation between the AVQI scores and the evaluation of overall perceptual voice quality (r?=?0.74).Conclusions: The results confirmed the good discriminatory power of the AVQI in differentiating between normal and abnormal voice qualities. The AVQI 02.02 threshold value for dysphonia was 2.87 in the Finnish-speaking population.
PubMed ID
30720373 View in PubMed
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Adverse events associated with hospitalization or detected through the RAI-HC assessment among Canadian home care clients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107858
Source
Healthc Policy. 2013 Aug;9(1):76-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Diane Doran
John P Hirdes
Régis Blais
G Ross Baker
Jeff W Poss
Xiaoqiang Li
Donna Dill
Andrea Gruneir
George Heckman
Hélène Lacroix
Lori Mitchell
Maeve O'Beirne
Andrea Foebel
Nancy White
Gan Qian
Sang-Myong Nahm
Odilia Yim
Lisa Droppo
Corrine McIsaac
Author Affiliation
Professor Emeritus, Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Source
Healthc Policy. 2013 Aug;9(1):76-88
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - statistics & numerical data
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Home Care Services - standards - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Male
Medical Errors - statistics & numerical data
Medication Errors - statistics & numerical data
Patient Safety - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Moral Judgment
Risk
Sex
Abstract
The occurrence of adverse events (AEs) in care settings is a patient safety concern that has significant consequences across healthcare systems. Patient safety problems have been well documented in acute care settings; however, similar data for clients in home care (HC) settings in Canada are limited. The purpose of this Canadian study was to investigate AEs in HC, specifically those associated with hospitalization or detected through the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC).
A retrospective cohort design was used. The cohort consisted of HC clients from the provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, British Columbia and the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority.
The overall incidence rate of AEs associated with hospitalization ranged from 6% to 9%. The incidence rate of AEs determined from the RAI-HC was 4%. Injurious falls, injuries from other than fall and medication-related events were the most frequent AEs associated with hospitalization, whereas new caregiver distress was the most frequent AE identified through the RAI-HC.
The incidence of AEs from all sources of data ranged from 4% to 9%. More resources are needed to target strategies for addressing safety risks in HC in a broader context. Tools such as the RAI-HC and its Clinical Assessment Protocols, already available in Canada, could be very useful in the assessment and management of HC clients who are at safety risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23968676 View in PubMed
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Age and gender differences in school-age children's appraisals of injury risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204752
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 1998 Aug;23(4):229-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
L M Hillier
B A Morrongiello
Author Affiliation
University of Western Ontario, Canada. hillier@julian.uwo.ca
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 1998 Aug;23(4):229-38
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Child
Female
Humans
Judgment
Male
Ontario
Risk-Taking
Sex Factors
Wounds and injuries - prevention & control
Abstract
To examine age and gender differences in children's perception of injury risk and to evaluate cognitive factors that relate to their appraisal of risk.
The participants were 120 children (6 to 10 years of age), who used a series of photographs, which depicted play activities that varied from no to high risk, to appraise injury risk.
Children were able to distinguish varying degrees of injury risk. Boys rated risk as lower than girls, and 6-year-old children identified fewer risk factors and did so more slowly than 10-year-old children. For girls, perceived vulnerability to injury was the best predictor of injury risk ratings, whereas for boys it was judged severity of potential injury.
Children's appraisal of risk and age and gender differences in related factors highlight important components for injury prevention programs.
PubMed ID
9718896 View in PubMed
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Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115479
Source
Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013 Jun;39(6):763-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Kenichi Ito
Takahiko Masuda
Liman Man Wai Li
Author Affiliation
Institute on Asian Consumer Insight, Singapore. kito@ntu.edu.sg
Source
Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013 Jun;39(6):763-76
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Canada
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Culture
Emotions
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - psychology
Facial Expression
Humans
Judgment
Abstract
Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.
PubMed ID
23504599 View in PubMed
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Age-related differences in reaction time task performance in young children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158163
Source
J Exp Child Psychol. 2009 Feb;102(2):150-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2009
Author
Sergey Kiselev
Kimberly Andrews Espy
Tiffany Sheffield
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Psychology, Ural State University, Yekaterinburg 620083, Russian Federation. eskisa@rambler.ru
Source
J Exp Child Psychol. 2009 Feb;102(2):150-66
Date
Feb-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Choice Behavior - physiology
Cognition - physiology
Discrimination (Psychology) - physiology
Discrimination Learning - physiology
Female
Humans
Judgment - physiology
Male
Pattern Recognition, Visual - physiology
Photic Stimulation - methods
Play and Playthings
Reaction Time - physiology
Russia
Students - psychology
Task Performance and Analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
Performance of reaction time (RT) tasks was investigated in young children and adults to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in processing speed supersede a "global" mechanism and are a function of specific differences in task demands and processing requirements. The sample consisted of 54 4-year-olds, 53 5-year-olds, 59 6-year-olds, and 35 adults from Russia. Using the regression approach pioneered by Brinley and the transformation method proposed by Madden and colleagues and Ridderinkhoff and van der Molen, age-related differences in processing speed differed among RT tasks with varying demands. In particular, RTs differed between children and adults on tasks that required response suppression, discrimination of color or spatial orientation, reversal of contingencies of previously learned stimulus-response rules, and greater stimulus-response complexity. Relative costs of these RT task differences were larger than predicted by the global difference hypothesis except for response suppression. Among young children, age-related differences larger than predicted by the global difference hypothesis were evident when tasks required color or spatial orientation discrimination and stimulus-response rule complexity, but not for response suppression or reversal of stimulus-response contingencies. Process-specific, age-related differences in processing speed that support heterochronicity of brain development during childhood were revealed.
PubMed ID
18359494 View in PubMed
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Agreement between professions on ethical decisions: an empirical demonstration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216289
Source
Med Law. 1995;14(3-4):191-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
M. Silberfeld
M. Finstad
D. Stephens
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Med Law. 1995;14(3-4):191-7
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Decision Making
Ethics Committees
Female
Group Processes
Humans
Judgment
Male
Mental Competency
Middle Aged
Ontario
Social Values
Abstract
The decisions of a multidisciplinary competency panel at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Toronto, Canada, were studied to try to explain the high level of agreement on individual cases when determining mental capacity. The panel assessed its own judgments on a standardized form developed to capture the process of coming to a capacity determination. Though the relative weights given to decision-making variables varied with discipline, there was agreement on a group of criteria most relevant to capacity. Three alternative explanations are given for these results.
PubMed ID
8524000 View in PubMed
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Are physicians in safe hands with a defence based on "error of judgment"?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146872
Source
Health Law Can. 2009 Oct;30(1):1-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Brian Murphy
Author Affiliation
Legate & Associates Professional Corporation, South Western Ontario.
Source
Health Law Can. 2009 Oct;30(1):1-8
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Diagnostic Errors - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Judgment
Liability, Legal
Medical Errors - legislation & jurisprudence
Physicians - legislation & jurisprudence
PubMed ID
19994550 View in PubMed
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155 records – page 1 of 16.