This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout.
As the Canadian population ages, there is a need to improve long-term care (LTC) services. An increased understanding of the positive work experiences of LTC staff may help attract more human health resources to LTC.
To describe the perceptions of the roles and work of nurses and care assistants in LTC from interprofessional perspectives.
This study used qualitative data collected from a larger mixed-methods study, Care by Design. The qualitative phase explored the lived experience of LTC staff from the perspectives of key stakeholders via focus groups and individual interviews.
One central theme that emerged from the study was that of LTC staff going "above and beyond" their clinical duties to care for residents. This above and beyond theme was categorized into subthemes including: 1. familial bonds between residents and staff; 2. staff spending additional time with residents; 3. the ability to provide comfort to family members; and 4. staff dedication during end-of-life care.
The findings show that staff develop a kinship with residents, demonstrate respect towards residents' families and provide comfort at the end-of-life. In emphasizing these themes of positive and fulfilling work, the present study provides insight into why staff work in LTC.
It has become clear that nursing is a high-risk occupation with regards to stress-related diseases. In this study, we were interested in nurses' experiences of stress and the emotions arising from stress at work. Results showed that nurses experienced negative stress which was apparently related to the social environment in which they worked. Four nurses were interviewed. The method used was grounded theory. Analysis of the interviews singled out absence of response as the core category. Recurring stressful situations obviously caused problems for the nurses in their daily work. Not only did they lack responses from their supervisors, they also experienced emotions of frustration, powerlessness, hopelessness and inadequacy, which increased the general stress experienced at work. Our conclusion is that the experience of absence of response leads to negative stress in nurses.
For several months, nurses completed ratings of the degree to which certain events relevant to absence were present during each of their scheduled workdays. The event ratings for days when the nurses decided to be absent were then compared with those for days when the nurses attended. As expected, certain events, such as ill health and tiredness, tended to covary and proved to be consistently related to absenteeism across nurses. Also as expected, some events that were not especially relevant for the nurses as a whole, like having a sick family member or friend and concerns about previous poor attendance, nonetheless emerged as being relevant to the absence behavior of certain individuals. Finally, some events were consistently related to the nurses' expressed desire to be absent but not to actual absences. We discuss these differences from two perspectives, one emphasizing the role of attribution bias and the other, a two-stage process in which such bias has no major role.
This paper investigates the possible relationship between job satisfaction and academic performance of occupational therapists who have graduated from the University of Western Ontario in the years 1975 to 1978. Fifty-four percent of the graduates of this time period filled out questionnaires eliciting information on their satisfaction with their jobs as occupational therapists and with the profession of occupational therapy. This information was analyzed with the therapists' academic performance of Grade XIII and their four years in the Occupational Therapy Program. The results indicated that although job satisfaction related significantly to three individual academic courses it did not relate to overall performance as measured by grade average.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the accuracy of nurses' self-reports of absence by examining: (1) the correlation, intra-class correlation, and Cronbach's alpha for self-reported absence and absence as reported in organizational records, (2) difference in central tendency for the two measures of absence and (3) the percentage of nurses who underestimate their absence.
Research on nurses' absenteeism has often relied on self-reports of absence. However, nurses may not be aware of their actual absenteeism, or they may underestimate it.
Self-reported absence from questionnaires completed by 215 Canadian nurses was compared with their absence from organizational records.
There is a strong positive correlation, a strong intra-class correlation and Cronbach's alpha for the two measures of absence. However, there is a difference in central tendency that is related to the majority of nurses in this study (51.1%) underestimating their days absent from work.
Research examining the predictors of absence may consider measuring absence with self-reports. Nevertheless, nurses demonstrated a bias to underestimate their absence.
Feedback interventions to reduce absenteeism can be developed to include providing nurses with accurate information about their absence.
To investigate associations between acts of offensive behaviour (threats, violence, bullying, and unwanted sexual attention) and risk of long-term sickness absence for eight or more consecutive weeks among female staff in the Danish elder-care services.
These associations were investigated using Cox regression analysis. Data consisted of a merger between Danish survey data collected among 9,520 female employees in the Danish elder-care services and register data on sickness absence compensation.
Compared to unexposed employees, employees frequently exposed to threats (HR = 1.52, 95% CI:1.11-2.07), violence (HR = 1.54, 95% CI:1.06-2.25), and bullying (HR = 2.33, 95% CI:1.55-3.51) had significantly increased risk of long-term sickness absence when adjusting for age, job function, tenure, BMI, smoking status, and psychosocial work conditions. When mutually adjusting for the four types of offensive behaviours, only bullying remained significantly associated with risk of long-term sickness absence (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.50-3.42). No significant associations were found between unwanted sexual attention and risk for long-term sickness absence.
Results indicate that prevention of threats, violence, and bullying may contribute to reduced sickness absence among elder-care staff. The results furthermore suggest that work organizations must be attentive on how to handle and prevent acts of offensive behaviour and support targets of offensive behaviours.
In spite of the long history of nurse practitioner practice in primary healthcare, less is known about nurse practitioners in hospital-based environments because until very recently, they have not been included in the extended class registration (nurse practitioner equivalent) with the College of Nurses of Ontario. Recent changes in the regulation of nurse practitioners in Ontario to include adult, paediatric and anaesthesia, indicates that a workforce review of practice profiles is needed to fully understand the depth and breadth of the role within hospital settings. Here, we present information obtained through a descriptive, self-reported survey of all nurse practitioners working in acute care settings who are not currently regulated in the extended class in Ontario. Results suggest wide acceptance of the role is concentrated around academic teaching hospitals. Continued barriers exist related to legislation and regulation as well as understanding and support for the multiple aspects of this role beyond clinical practice. This information may be used by nurse practitioners, nursing leaders and other administrators to position the role in hospital settings for greater impact on patient care. As well, understanding the need for regulatory and legislative changes to support the hospital-based Nurse Practitioner role will enable greater impact on health human resources and healthcare transformation.
This retrospective study examined the prevalence of depression and psychosomatic disorders among Soviet Jewish immigrants, and how such problems might have affected their children's adaptation. A 36-item English and Russian questionnaire was sent to 452 Soviet Jewish immigrants, requesting information on possible problems they or their children had had during the first three years after immigration. Ninety people responded, 78% of whom had children. Immigrants with depression and psychosomatic illness reported greater behaviour, academic, peer interaction, and child-parent difficulties in their children. Those who were married, were proficient in English, were professionals in the USSR and/or Canada and who had supportive friends, were more likely to adapt well. Because of the low response rate, the failure to validate the questionnaire, and the possible overrepresentation of professionals the findings are presented as preliminary pending further exploration. They are discussed for their relevance to the early identification of difficulties in immigrants and their children, and to the need for timely and informed intervention.