Dating violence is a significant public health problem in the lives of young women. Their age, in conjunction with perceived pressures to engage in intimate relationships, makes these women particularly vulnerable to dating violence. The pressures to be in relationships can be intense and therefore may add to young women's willingness to overlook, forgive, or excuse the violence that is occurring. The authors' purposes in this feminist study were to examine the experience of dating violence from young women's perspectives; investigate how contextual factors shape their experiences; examine how health is shaped by these experiences; and explore ways that dating violence is perpetuated and normalized in young women's lives. Findings revealed that family environment and gender are critical in shaping young women's experiences. The participants described a range of physical and emotional health problems and perceived few sources of support. Their efforts to obtain support were often met with skeptical and dismissive attitudes on the part of health care providers and other trusted adults. Recommendations for health care practice, education, and research are presented.
The definition of envy is based on views of anthropology, sociology, psychology and nursing science. According to these definitions, a nurse education community consists of shared values, customs and beliefs common in the nursing community. The purpose of this paper was to describe envy in the reciprocal relations between student nurses in a polytechnic of health and welfare in Finland. The sample consisted of 110 student nurses in one faculty of health and welfare in a Finnish polytechnic. They were selected from among the available (attending classes) students, who had been studying in the same group for 1-3 years in 1996. The response percentage was 85.5 (n=94). The data were processed by various statistical methods. The findings of envy in a nurse education community were defined through the student nurses' views of their sense of self, their relations with their fellow students, the objects of envy and also the influence of the lecturers. The ways of coping with envy were also identified. The most common object of envy was a fellow student who worked part-time while studying. Another object of envy consisted of fellow students successful in examinations and skills, such as listening, friendships and good ideas. The students coped with their envy by sharing their own success and by denying envy. These results highlight some essential points of envy in a nurse education community and underline the need for open discussion, as emotions and envy are important to understand as part of nurse education. If envy is not identified, it may cause learning problems and even problems in patient care.
The aim is to report on the development and preliminary validation of an instrument, VIFFA (Violence faite aux Filles dans les Fréquentations à l'Adolescence), on female victimization in the context of dating violence in adolescence. Objectives are twofold: to document the psychometric qualities of this self-report and to propose an instrument adapted to the context of young teens. The instrument refers to concepts of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Questioning in two phases is used to achieve proper understanding of the concept studied and to help select the partner to whom they refer in the second detailed phase. Girls were questioned on violence sustained and boys on violence inflicted. The total sample included 331 boys and 377 girls; their mean age was 14.6 years. A social desirability questionnaire was used to evaluate discriminant validity and the results indicate that the adolescents' answers were not distorted by social desirability. The factorial analyses resulted in 4 slightly different factors for girls and boys. With regard to the girls (violence sustained), the factors included Verbal and Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, Control through Jealousy and Sexual Abuse. With the boys (violence inflicted), the factors were Psychological Abuse, Jealousy and Sexual Abuse, Severe Physical Abuse and Minor Physical Abuse. Validation studies indicate that the instrument has adequate psychometric qualities and is adapted to the context of adolescence. An innovative aspect is the place given to items concerning jealousy.
Mounting evidence suggests that women with disabilities have a particularly high risk of experiencing violence by an intimate partner. This study examined the elevated risk for male-female intimate partner violence (IPV) against women with disabilities compared to women without disabilities across three large-scale Canadian surveys. An explanatory framework was tested that organized risk markers based on whether they referred to the context of the relationship between the couple (relationship factors), the victim (victim-related characteristics), or the perpetrator (perpetrator-related characteristics).
The data employed in this study were from three surveys collected by Statistics Canada: the 1993 Violence Against Women Survey, and the 1999 and 2004 iterations of the General Social Survey. Descriptive analyses consisted of cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests of significance. Logistic regression was used to calculate zero-order odds ratios and to perform multivariate analyses.
A pattern was found in which women with disabilities reported a significantly higher prevalence of violence than those without disabilities. The perpetrator-related characteristics were the only variables that reduced the elevated odds of violence against women with disabilities. Partners of women with disabilities were more likely to engage in patriarchal domination as well as possessive and jealous behaviors.
The apparent importance of perpetrator-related characteristics (e.g., jealousy) suggests that future research should include a focus on what it is about the context of disability that makes these men more likely to engage in behaviors that are associated with IPV perpetration. Population-based efforts, professionals working with women who are victims, and professionals working with male perpetrators need to pay attention to the role of disability in IPV.
The two-fold purpose of this study was to explore the peer education experiences of registered nurses and solutions for developing peer education as an effective method of adult learning.
Eleven designated peer nurse teachers and 13 peer nurse learners were asked to complete a questionnaire. Three peer nurse teachers and three peer nurse learners were further interviewed in focus groups.
The metathemes of peer role conflict, organizational stress, and the timing of new role integration were identified.
The study found nurses believed that to have a successful peer education program, the scope of the peer education program and the peer roles should be clarified, peer time should be available and accessible, positive motivational techniques (including a just peer selection process) should be present, and other resources should be provided.
Scandinavian psychiatrists acknowledge endogenous psychoses which are neither schizophrenic nor manic-depressive, i.e., above all the "reactive psychoses" and the "schizophreniform psychoses", both of which differ from schizophrenia in their features as well as in their good prognoses. These Scandinavian diagnoses bear relationships to psychoses, which I separate from schizophrenia. In the present paper, paranoid states are discussed with regard to their clinical pictures and their good prognoses. Among these are the "cycloid psychoses". Patients suffering from these diseases recover from every phase, though most of the German psychiatrists consider them schizophrenic. Among the cycloid psychoses, the "ansiety happiness psychosis" shows ideas of reference on the one hand and ecstatic ideas on the other. In "inhibited confusion psychosis", the patients are suffering from ideas of reference and ideas of significance; in "excited confusion psychosis", from misidentifications of persons. The other symptoms which occur--anxiety, happiness, stupor, incoherent pressure of speech--confirm the cycloid psychoses and disprove schizophrenias. Besides the already mentioned psychoses, there is a monopolar psychosis, "suspicious depression", in which ideas of reference and ideas of guilt mix. It is extremely important, not only for theoretical but also practical reasons, to separate from schizophrenia paranoid states which terminate in complete recovery from every phase.
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLO-SL) is a rare hereditary disease affecting both brain and bones. Skeletal symptoms begin in early adulthood and neuropsychiatric symptoms at approximately age 30. Progressive dementia associated with an accentuated frontal lobe syndrome handicaps the patients. The author describes inadequate psychosocial reactions of the spouses of 21 Finnish PLO-SL patients. The reactions included rejection and divorce in 8 cases and rejection without divorce in 1 case. Jealousy, violence, and alcoholism were common in male spouses. The author suggests that some of the spouses' negative psychosocial reactions may be lessened if the family is informed early about the nature of the disorder.
According to the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, the challenge for women to ensure paternal investment increased their jealousy response to emotional infidelity, whereas paternal uncertainty exerted selective pressures that shaped men to become more distressed by sexual infidelity. Several studies have investigated whether the effect of these sexually dimorphic selection pressures can be detected in contemporary human populations, with conflicting results. To date, no genetically informed studies of sex differences in jealousy have been conducted. We used data from the Screening Across the Lifespan of Twins Younger (SALTY) sample, containing information concerning self-rated jealousy from 3,197 complete twin pairs collected by the Swedish Twin Registry. Intra-class correlations and structural equation models were used to assess the genetic influence on jealousy and to investigate sex differences at genetic level. We saw a highly significant sex effect on the relationship between infidelity types, indicating that men, relative to women, reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. The twin models revealed significant heritabilities for both sexual (32%) and emotional (26%) jealousy. The heritabilities were of a similar magnitude in both sexes, and no qualitative sex differences could be detected. We show for the first time that variance in jealousy is to some extent explained by genetic factors. Even though our results from the mean value analyses are in line with the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, we could not identify any sex differences on a genetic level.