The nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima released large amounts of (137)Cs radionuclides into the atmosphere which spread over large forest areas. We compared the (137)Cs concentration distribution in different parts of two coniferous forest ecosystems (needle litter, stems and at different depths in the soil) over short and long term periods in Finland and Japan. We also estimated the change in (137)Cs activity concentrations in needle and soil between 1995 and 2013 in Southern Finland based on the back-calculated (137)Cs activity concentrations. We hypothesized that if the (137)Cs activity concentrations measured in 1995 and 2013 showed a similar decline in concentration, the (137)Cs activity concentration in the ecosystem was already stable in 1995. But if not, the (137)Cs activity concentrations were still changing in 2013. Our results showed that the vertical distribution of the (137)Cs fallout in the soil was similar in Hyytiälä and Fukushima. The highest (137)Cs concentrations were observed in the uppermost surface layers of the soil, and they decreased exponentially deeper in the soil. We also observed that (137)Cs activity concentrations estimated from the samples in 1995 and 2013 in Finland showed different behavior in the surface soil layers compared to the deep soil layer. These results suggested that the (137)Cs nuclei were still mobile in the surface soil layers 27 years after the accident. Our results further indicated that, in the aboveground parts of the trees, the (137)Cs concentrations were much closer to steady-state when compared to those of the surface soil layers based on the estimated declining rates of (137)Cs concentration activity in needles which were similar in 1995 and 2013. Despite its mobility and active role in the metabolism of trees, the (137)Cs remains in the structure of the trees for decades, and there is not much exchange of (137)Cs between the heartwood and surface layers of the stem.
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has published a substantive series of reports concerning sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the highlights and conclusions from the most recent 1986 and 1988 reports. The present annual per person effective dose equivalent for the world's population is about 3 mSv. The majority of this (2.4 mSv) comes from natural background, and 0.4 to 1 mSv is from medical exposures. Other sources contribute less than 0.02 mSv annually. The worldwide collective effective dose equivalent annually is between 13 and 16 million person-Sv. The Committee assessed the collective effective dose equivalent to the population of the northern hemisphere from the reactor accident at Chernobyl and concluded that this is about 600,000 person-Sv. The Committee also reviewed risk estimates for radiation carcinogenesis which included the new Japanese dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These data indicate that risk coefficient estimates for high doses and high dose rate low-LET radiation in the Japanese population are approximately 3-10% Sv-1, depending on the projection model utilized. The Committee also indicated that, in calculation of such risks at low doses and low dose rates, a risk-reduction factor in the range of 2-10 may be considered.
Goroji Nakagawa, a chief keeper of a trading house on Iturup Island, was brought unwillingly to Siberia by Russian vessels in 1807. In 1812, after about five years of hard life in Siberia, he was permitted to return to his homeland with two Russian books on vaccination. Sadayosi Baba, who stayed at Matsumae in 1813, happened to read one of the two books that had been published in 1803 in Peterburg and he translated it into Japanese. Within several months Baba finished his translation, however, he was clearly aware that the translation was far from perfect. Baba revised his draft in 1820 and titled it "Tonka Hiketu" or "The complete method for relieving small pox infection." But it remained unpublished until 1850, when Sen-an Tosimitsu obtained one of the manuscripts at Nagasaki and published it as "Rosia Gyuto Zensho" or "A Synopsis of Russian Vaccination." At present, sixteen manuscripts of "Tonka Hiketu" are extant in Japan and most of them are in public libraries. Bibliographical considerations of their contents, phonogramic descriptions of the original Russian title, comparisons of their illustrations with the originals and differences among Japanese translations reveal to us that the manuscript "Takeda A," among sixteen extant manuscripts, is the closest to the original manuscript of Sadayosi Baba, which remains lost.
Associations have been reported between polymorphisms in the gene for alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease. An A-to-G substitution at nucleotide position 1,252 of ACT that produces a methionine to valine substitution at codon 389 has been found previously in four of 32 individuals with cerebrovascular disease from a Japanese population. We genotyped 194 individuals [59 controls, 35 with non-AD-type dementia (primarily vascular) and 100 with Alzheimer's-type dementia] for this polymorphism and found none that carry this polymorphism. Therefore, the allelic association of the A1252G mutation of ACT with cerebrovascular disease may be confined to the Japanese population and is not generalizable to other populations.
We report a case of Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease) found in Shizuoka City, Japan which was suspected to be caused by Borrelia japonica infection. A 8-year-old female was bitten on her head by a tick at a camping ground, near Tamagawa, Shizuoka. The tick was removed by the patient and was discarded before species identification. After one week, lymph node swelling with tenderness developed on her left neck. She consulted a local pediatrician and was suspected to have upper respiratory infection. As oral antibiotic, cefaclor was not effective, the patient was referred to us. The patient's serum showed positive reaction with Lyme Borreliosis ELISA kit (Dakopatts, Denmark) using Borrelia burgdorferi flagellum as antigen. The serum also gave positive results with home-made ELISA to B. japonica strain IKA2, which was isolated from I. ovatus, but not with other borrelial strain isolated in the United States, Europe, and from I. persulcatus and wild rodent in Japan. In western blotting, the serum reacted with flagellin and outer surface protein A (OspA) of B. japonica. We diagnosed her as Lyme disease and got a successful result with oral penicillin, sultamicillin. From a result of our field tick survey, we have not collected I. persulcatus around the area where the patient had a tick bite. These findings indicated that Lyme disease was caused by B. japonica infection with I. ovatus bite.
Carl Peter Thunberg, a Swedish medical doctor and botanist who visited Japan in 1775 as a medical doctor attached to the Dutch Trade House in Dejima, Nagasaki, taught the treatment of syphilis using mercury water to Japanese doctors and interpreters. This therapy is based on the oral administration of a 0.014% solution of mercuric chloride and was published in 1754 by Gerard van Swieten in Vienna, who questioned the utility of the conventional salivation therapy. The dose was set taking safety into account. Kogyu Yoshio, a Japanese-Dutch interpreter, had already read about it in a book written by J. J. Plenck, when he was taught about the therapy by Thunberg. He recorded Thunberg's teachings in his book "Komohijiki", presenting details of various formulations, including a high-dose formulation. The mercury therapy was subsequently spread across the country by medical doctors who learned Western medicine through the Dutch. In the 1820's, Genshin Udagawa, who read a number of Western medical books, published books on Western drugs. In these books, G. Udagawa included precise information on "Swieten Yakushu-hu (medicated alcohol)", including information on the dosage, formulation, mode of usage, and precautions for use. The maximum dose of mercuric chloride established chloride established by van Swieten was included in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia up to its 5th edition.
Hypothermia is considered a serious problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold, which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18,346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four percent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5 degrees C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0 degrees and 5 degrees C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16 degrees C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.
The assertive community treatment (ACT) teams of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto and the KUINA Center, Hitachinaka, Japan, were compared with regard to ACT fidelity, organizational structure, populations served, and treatment outcomes. Ethnocultural adaptations to the ACT model made by both teams included enhanced family support and intervention, culturally and linguistically matched staff and patients when possible, culturally informed therapy, routine cultural assessments, culturally matched housing and community support, and flexible funding models.
Data were gathered by chart reviews (66 patients in Toronto and 40 patients in Japan), a satisfaction measure, a standard measure of ACT fidelity, and a pre-post measure of treatment outcomes (the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), and hospitalization days.
Both teams achieved good fidelity to ACT and reductions in hospitalization and symptom severity. Family satisfaction scores were high.
With culturally informed adaptations, ACT can be effective in a Canadian mixed ethnocultural population and a homogeneous Japanese population.
Adapting an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder parent training intervention to different cultural contexts: The experience of implementing the New Forest Parenting Programme in China, Denmark, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United Kingdom.
The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a parenting program developed for parents who have a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a manualized program that is delivered in a parent's home over 8 weeks, or in a group format, or through a self-help manual. Three randomized controlled trials have been carried out in the United Kingdom. The NFPP group has adapted the program according to feedback from parents and therapists, and for use with different populations, both within the United Kingdom and internationally. The first international trial took place in New York, United States. Trials in Denmark, Hong Kong, and Japan followed. More recently, a trial of the self-help manual has been carried out in mainland China. This paper will outline the adaptions that were needed in order to be able to deliver the program in different countries with their own expectations of parenting, culture, and language. Training had to be differently focused; manuals and handouts had to be revised, translated and back-translated; and supervision had to be delivered at a distance to maintain the fidelity of the program. The international group will outline their experience of running trials in their own countries with the NFPP in a face-to-face format (Denmark), a group format (Hong Kong and Japan), and a self-help format (mainland China).
The objective of this work was to contribute local data concerning the full adult height of women in Cordoba, Argentina, and to explore the possibility of a secular trend in their heights. For the study, 513 women were examined during May and June 1994. All of the women were between 18 and 40 years of age and were mothers of children who were included in a study on lactation, feeding, growth, and development in CÃ³rdoba. The measurements were carried out applying standardized techniques and using as a reference standard the 50th-percentile level data from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. The mean full height of the CÃ³rdoba population studied was 157.9 cm, 0.97 standard deviation (SD) below the reference norm. For the women from the highest of six socioeconomic strata, the mean height was 159.7 cm (-0.67 SD); the mean for women from the lowest stratum was 156.2 cm (-1.25 SD). The difference in the means of those two socioeconomic groups was statistically significant (P