National Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences, Queen Mary College, Barts and the London School of Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
To analyse the feasibility, cost and performance of rapid tuberculosis (TB) molecular and culture systems, in a high multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) middle-income region (Samara, Russia) and provide evidence for WHO policy change.
Performance and cost evaluation was conducted to compare the BACTEC MGIT 960 system for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular systems for TB diagnosis, resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, and MDR TB identification compared to conventional Lowenstein-Jensen culture assays.
698 consecutive patients (2487 sputum samples) with risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis were recruited. Overall M. tuberculosis complex culture positivity rates were 31.6% (787/2487) in MGIT and 27.1% (675/2487) in LJ (90.5% and 83.2% for smear-positive specimens). In total, 809 cultures of M. tuberculosis complex were isolated by any method. Median time to detection was 14 days for MGIT and 36 days for LJ (10 and 33 days for smear positive specimens) and indirect DST in MGIT took 9 days compared to 21 days on LJ. There was good concordance between DST on LJ and MGIT (96.8% for rifampin and 95.6% for isoniazid). Both molecular hybridization assay results correlated well with MGIT DST results, although molecular assays generally yielded higher rates of resistance (by approximately 3% for both isoniazid and rifampin).
With effective planning and logistics, the MGIT 960 and molecular based methodologies can be successfully introduced into a reference laboratory setting in a middle incidence country. High rates of MDR TB in the Russian Federation make the introduction of such assays particularly useful.
In 1975, a survey was carried out in Canada to determine the primary and acquired drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates to isoniazid (INH), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and streptomycin. The results of this investigation were compared with those of the primary drug resistant study of Armstrong, undertaken in 1963-64. It revealed that primary drug resistance has increased from 4.9% to 6.3%. The increase is mainly due to immigrants having arrived in this country during the last 12 years. In these newcomers the primary resistance rate was 11.5%. Moreover, 57.8% of the immigrants examined in the survey were of Asian origin, with a drug resistance rate of 11.7%, while 15.6% had arrived from South Europe with a resistant ratio of 16.7%. In retreatment cases, the national average of drug resistance was 26.4%. Among the Canadian provinces, the highest drug resistance rate in retreatment patients (40%) was found in Quebec. While in primary resistance Streptomycin exhibited the highest incidence, in retreatment cases isoniazid resistance proved to be more frequent. In natives, the rates and patterns of primary and acquired resistance were very similar to those observed in other Canadian born patients.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1750.
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis compromises effective control of tuberculosis (TB) in Siberia. Early identification of drug-resistant isolates is, therefore, crucial for effective treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to conduct drug susceptibility testing and identify mutations in drug resistance genes in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from some TB patients presenting for treatment in Siberia.
Thirty randomly selected clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were obtained from the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russia. Isolates were screened for drug resistance and characterized by variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)-typing using 15 standard and four additional loci. Deligotyping on multiple large sequences was performed using 10 loci.
Twenty-nine of the isolates were assigned XDR status. Twenty-eight isolates belonged to the M. tuberculosis Beijing family, from which 11 isolates were considered the M11 type (39%), two the M2 type (7%), and one the M33 type (3%). Seventeen isolates (60.7%) from this family exhibited unique genetic patterns. The remaining two isolates belonged to the Latino-American Mediterranean family. Gene sequences (rpoB, katG, rrs, rpsL, tlyA, gidB, gyrA, gyrB) were analyzed to identify mutations that confer resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, and ofloxacin. The most common mutations among the XDR isolates were S531L in RpoB, S315T in KatG, various codon 94 mutations in gyrA, A90V in GyrA, K43R in RpsL, and 1401 A ? G in rrs; these confer resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, streptomycin and kanamycin/capreomycin, respectively. There was high congruence between the two typing methods (VNTR typing and deligotyping) and RD105, RD149, RD152, RD181, and RD207 regions of difference were absent from the 28 Beijing family isolates.
Deligotyping can be used for rapid and reliable screening of M. tuberculosis isolates, followed by more in-depth genotyping. Identification of Beijing family isolates with extensive drug resistance confirms that such strains have epidemiological importance in Siberia. Rapid detection of mutations that lead to drug resistance should facilitate selection of effective drug therapies, and the development of early prevention strategies to combat this infection.
Currently, no information is available on the effect of resistance/susceptibility to first-line drugs different from isoniazid and rifampicin in determining the outcome of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients, and whether being XDR-TB is a more accurate indicator of poor clinical outcome than being resistant to all first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. To investigate this issue, a large series of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and XDR-TB cases diagnosed in Estonia, Germany, Italy and the Russian Federation during the period 1999-2006 were analysed. Drug-susceptibility testing for first- and second-line anti-TB drugs, quality assurance and treatment delivery was performed according to World Health Organization recommendations in all study sites. Out of 4,583 culture-positive TB cases analysed, 361 (7.9%) were MDR and 64 (1.4%) were XDR. XDR-TB cases had a relative risk (RR) of 1.58 to have an unfavourable outcome compared with MDR-TB cases resistant to all first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin ethambutol, streptomycin and, when tested, pyrazinamide), and an RR of 2.61 compared with "other" MDR-TB cases (those susceptible to at least one first-line anti-TB drug among ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin, regardless of resistance to the second-line drugs not defining XDR-TB). The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis confirms that problems in tuberculosis management are still present in Europe. While waiting for new tools which will facilitate management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, accessibility to quality diagnostic and treatment services should be urgently ensured and adequate public health policies should be rapidly implemented to prevent further development of drug resistance.
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2008 Nov;32(5):1413-518978145
To study Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in the Archangels oblast, and to reveal risk factors for the development of drug-resistant tuberculosis.
The drug susceptibility of strains isolated from 119 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was studied using the BACTEC method. Medical records of the patients were reviewed, retrospectively, to identify factors associated with drug resistance.
Sixty-seven strains (56.3%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. The highest rates of resistance were observed for streptomycin and isoniazid: respectively 40.4% and 66.7% of strains isolated from newly and previously treated patients were resistant to streptomycin, and respectively 37.1% and 73.3% of strains isolated from newly and previously treated patients were resistant to isoniazid. Thirty of the 119 strains (25.2%) were multidrug-resistant. Multidrug resistance was four times higher among previously treated patients than among new patients. A history of previous or interrupted treatment for tuberculosis and being female were significantly associated with drug resistance.
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is an important problem in the Archangels oblast, Russia. The spread of drug resistance is attributed to several risk factors. Being female and evidence of previous treatment for tuberculosis are risk factors for the development of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Archangels oblast. Patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis also showed a higher risk of interrupting their treatment.
In Tomsk Oblast, Russian Federation, during the period of 1996-2000, most previously untreated patients with tuberculosis received standardized short-course chemotherapy, irrespective of drug-susceptibility testing results. A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effect of initial drug resistance on treatment outcome and acquired drug resistance in new patients receiving standardized short-course chemotherapy.
During the period of 1 November 1996 through 31 December 2000, a total of 2194 patients received a category 1 treatment regimen. Drug susceptibility test results for 1681 patients were available for analysis. Drug resistance patterns before and during treatment were compared for 73 patients whose culture results were persistently positive during treatment. Acquired resistance was defined as new drug resistance (during or at the end of treatment) that was not present at the beginning of treatment.
Pretreatment drug resistance was strongly associated with treatment failure. In patients who had strains with pretreatment resistance patterns that included isoniazid or rifampin resistance, but not resistance to both, 17 (70.8%) of 24 cases involving treatment failures acquired new multidrug resistance. In patients with pretreatment pan-susceptible or streptomycin-monoresistant strains, 13 (41.9%) of 31 cases involving treatment failures acquired new multidrug resistance.
Early diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis and judicious use of second-line drugs is recommended to decrease transmission of drug-resistant strains and to prevent the creation of multidrug-resistant strains. Finally, if drug susceptibility tests are not available or results are delayed, physicians should recognize that patients who do not respond to directly observed empirical short-course chemotherapy are at high risk of having multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and should be treated accordingly.
Comment In: Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 15;40(10):1549-5015844084
The manual Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) method was evaluated for performing direct and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for isoniazid and rifampin on 101 strongly smear-positive sputum specimens in a Siberian prison hospital. Using the indirect method of proportion (MOP) as the "gold standard," the accuracies of isoniazid and rifampin susceptibility testing by the direct MGIT system were 97.0 and 94.1%, respectively. The accuracy of the indirect MGIT system was 98.0% for both drugs. The turnaround times from specimen processing to reporting of the DST results ranged between 4 and 23 (mean, 9.2) days by the direct MGIT method, 9 and 30 (mean, 15.3) days by the indirect MGIT method, and 26 and 101 (mean, 59.6) days by the indirect MOP. MGIT appears to be a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for performing direct and indirect DSTs in low-resource settings, but further studies are required to refine the direct DST protocol. Cost is the only factor prohibiting widespread implementation of MGIT.
During the last years in Novosibirsk region of Russia the rate of TB patients infected by MDR strains of M. tuberculosis has been constantly increasing. This increase may occur as a result of the spontaneously mutated mycobacterium selection during treatment of patients or as a result of primary infection by the resistant M. tuberculosis, or also, as a result of both reasons in combination. If the main reason of MDR strain dissemination is selection of resistant bacterium during patient treatment, the equal apportionment of the dominated mutation into the mycobacterium genotypes would be observed. If the main reason is the primary infection by resistant M. tuberculosis, the unequal apportionment would be revealed. For deeper understanding of the main reasons of the fast MDR strains spreading in the region, the distribution of the main mutations over genotypes of strains in Novosibirsk (170 isolates) and Tomsk prison (51 isolates) was investigated. Mutations in rpoB gene associated with the rifampicin resistance and in katG (isoniazid resistance) were detected by biochips. M. tuberculosis genotypings were carried out by IS6110 PCR typing or MIRU typing, in the last method the twelve loci (MIRU 2, 4, 10, 16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 39, 40) have been used. The most frequent mutation in the rpoB gene was Ser531-->Leu (60-70% of the rifampicin resistant strains) and Ser315-->Thr in gene katG (80% of the isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis). Both in Novosibirsk and in Tomsk prison the rates of clustered cases transmissions were high (69 and 63% respectively). Analysis of the distribution of the dominated mutations Ser531-->Leu (rpoB) and Ser315-->Thr (katG) revealed that all of them were detected in each clusters, but in Novosibirsk there were only two clusters, in which the percentage of strains, containing mutation Ser531-->Leu (rpoB) were higher (85.7% and 77.7% respectively, P Thr mutation in katGwas higher (96.4%, P