The objective of this study was to determine if the consumption of certain foods during the year prior to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) was associated with the risk of developing T1D in children and youth residing in Prince Edward Island, Canada.
Cases (n = 57) consisted of newly diagnosed patients with T1D during 2001 to 2004. Controls (n = 105) were randomly selected from the province's population, and matched to cases by age at diagnosis and sex. Food consumption in cases and controls was assessed using two previously validated food frequency questionnaires, and a survey was developed to collect information on potential environmental and genetic risk factors.
The median age at diagnosis was nine years, and 67% of cases were male. After controlling for the matched variables and four significant environmental and genetic risk factors (family members with T1D, the number of infections during the first two years of life, place of residence, and father's education) in the final logistic regression model, the consumption of regular soft drinks (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.21, 6.36) and eggs (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.09, 5.75) were significant risk factors of T1D, when consumed once per week or more often.
Diet may play a role in the development of T1D. However, further research is needed to confirm these observed associations.
To determine the relationship between the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and daily intake of drinking water and dietary components, including nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines, during the year prior to diagnosis.
Controls (n = 105) were matched by age at diagnosis and sex to T1D cases (n = 57) newly diagnosed during 2001-2004. Food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Locally available samples of foods were tested for nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine concentrations. Water consumption was determined through an additional questionnaire, and water samples were taken from homes and tested for routine chemical components, including nitrate.
After controlling for age, age, sex, and daily energy intake, nitrate intake from food sources showed a non-significant positive trend (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for quartiles = 1.00, 1.63 (0.58, 4.63), 1.71 (0.54, 5.40), 3.02 (0.78, 11.74); p for trend = 0.13). Nitrite and nitrosamine intake were not related to T1D risk (p for trend = 0.77 and 0.81, respectively). When food and water components were combined, zinc and calcium intakes were marginally and inversely related to T1D risk (p for trend = 0.07 and 0.06, respectively). After further model adjustment of possible confounders and significant risk factors, an increased intake of caffeine marginally increased the risk of T1D (p = 0.07).
Dietary components from both food and water sources may influence the risk of developing T1D in young persons.