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Agricultural contamination of groundwater as a possible risk factor for growth restriction or prematurity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194907
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Apr;43(4):377-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
J. Bukowski
G. Somers
J. Bryanton
Author Affiliation
Clinical Research Centre, University of Prince Edward Island.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Apr;43(4):377-83
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Case-Control Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Male
Nitrates - adverse effects - analysis
Obstetric Labor, Premature - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Risk factors
Topography, Medical
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Agricultural activity on Prince Edward Island poses a potential hazard to groundwater, which is the sole source of drinking water on the island. This study investigates the potential impact of groundwater nitrate exposure on prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction on Prince Edward Island. A total of 210 intrauterine growth restriction cases, 336 premature births, and 4098 controls were abstracted from a database of all Island births. An ecological measure of groundwater nitrate level was used to gauge potential exposure to agriculturally contaminated drinking water. The higher nitrate exposure categories were positively associated with intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity, and significant dose-response trends were seen, even after adjustment for several important covariates. Nevertheless, these risks must be interpreted cautiously because of the ecological nature of this exposure metric. An investigation using nitrate levels for individual study subjects is needed to confirm this association.
PubMed ID
11322099 View in PubMed
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AIDS/HIV survey--Prince Edward Island.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221249
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993 Apr 15;19(7):49-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-1993
Author
L. Sweet
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Social Services, Charlottetown, Prince Edward, Island.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993 Apr 15;19(7):49-50
Date
Apr-15-1993
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
HIV Seropositivity - epidemiology
HIV Seroprevalence
Health Surveys
Humans
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
PubMed ID
8495222 View in PubMed
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Source
Cancer Surv. 1994;19-20:125-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
S. Tominaga
T. Kuroishi
Author Affiliation
Research Institute, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.
Source
Cancer Surv. 1994;19-20:125-37
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas - epidemiology
Asia - epidemiology
Biliary Tract Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Gallbladder Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Humans
Incidence
Male
Pacific Islands - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Biliary tract cancer is a rare cancer in most parts of the world, but it is relatively common in some countries and ethnic groups, such as Japan, Central and South America, eastern Europe and in American Indians, and Hispanics. In some countries, such as Japan, Sweden, Finland and Italy, the age adjusted mortality of biliary tract cancer has been increasing, whereas in females in some other countries--Israel, The Netherlands, USA, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, etc--mortality has been declining. The reasons for these geographical or ethnic variations and time trends for biliary tract cancer are not clear, but some unknown environmental risk factors or a genetic susceptibility are suspected. Not many analytical epidemiological studies on biliary tract cancer have been conducted yet and little is known about its aetiology apart from a close association with gall stones and a female preponderance of gall bladder cancer. Besides gall stones, some other factors such as obesity, pregnancy, female sex hormones, exposure in rubber and some other chemical industries and genetic factors have been suspected of being associated with gall bladder cancer directly or indirectly through cholelithiasis. As an artificial factor, the effect of the prevalence of cholecystectomy on biliary tract cancer must be considered. More studies are needed in the future to elucidate the aetiology of biliary tract cancer and to establish measures to prevent this cancer.
PubMed ID
7534623 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122918
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 May;9(5):1846-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jillian Ashley-Martin
John VanLeeuwen
Alastair Cribb
Pantelis Andreou
Judith Read Guernsey
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Ave., Halifax, NS B3H1V7, Canada. jillian.ashley-martin@dal.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 May;9(5):1846-58
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fungicides, Industrial
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22754477 View in PubMed
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Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290856
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Tristan L Burgess
Christine Kreuder Johnson
Alexander Burdin
Verena A Gill
Angela M Doroff
Pamela Tuomi
Woutrina A Smith
Tracey Goldstein
Author Affiliation
1 Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center, University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95965, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 10; 53(4):864-868
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Brucella - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Brucellosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Female
Islands - epidemiology
Male
Markov Chains
Monte Carlo Method
Otters - microbiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Rectum - microbiology
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.
PubMed ID
28715292 View in PubMed
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Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142394
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11 Suppl 2:99-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Malcolm A Moore
Francine Baumann
Sunia Foliaki
Marc T Goodman
Robert Haddock
Roger Maraka
Josefa Koroivueta
David Roder
Thomas Vinit
Helen J D Whippy
Tomotaka Sobue
Author Affiliation
UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control. apocpcontrol@yahoo.com
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11 Suppl 2:99-106
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pacific Islands - epidemiology
Registries
Sex Factors
Abstract
The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.
PubMed ID
20553071 View in PubMed
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Cancer in the US Associated Pacific Islands (UASPI): history and participatory development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171996
Source
Pac Health Dialog. 2004 Sep;11(2):8-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Neal A Palafox
JoAnn 'Umilani Tsark
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, USA. npalafox@hawaii.edu
Source
Pac Health Dialog. 2004 Sep;11(2):8-13
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Awareness
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Needs Assessment
Neoplasms - epidemiology - history
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - history
Pacific Islands - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
The US-associated Pacific Island jurisdictions (USAPI) have great disparities in health care and comprehensive cancer care compared to the United States. Cancer mortality ranks first or second among the leading causes of death in most of these island nations. The USAPI has formed the Cancer Council of the Pacific Islands (CCPI), an indigenous council to identify and address the cancer health disparities of the region. The CCPI efforts were formally launched in 2002 with the support of the Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities, a Center of the National Cancer Institute (CRCHD-NCI) and the National Center for Minority Health Disparities, a Center of the National Institutes of Health (NCMHD-NIH). Facilitating partners are the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Hawai'i and 'Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network, a program of Papa Ola Lokahi. The objectives of this initiative are to describe and address the cancer health disparities in the USAPI. Over the past 2 years there has been considerable progress in identifying and prioritizing cancer prevention and control needs; launching cancer prevention and control efforts in each of the jurisdictions; and leveraging additional funding to support ongoing activities. The support from the Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities in fostering a participatory model of development has been landmark in the establishment and implementation of this initiative. This manuscript provides a historical background on cancer in the USAPI and prefaces 9 cancer assessments in this journal from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Belau, and the four states (Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae and Chuuk) of the Federated States of Micronesia.
PubMed ID
16281671 View in PubMed
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Cancer research studies in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195875
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Nov;10(8 Suppl):S49-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
C K Hughes
J U Tsark
C K Kenui
G A Alexander
Author Affiliation
Office of Health Parity, Hawai'i State Department of Health, Honolulu 96813, USA.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2000 Nov;10(8 Suppl):S49-60
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ethnic Groups
Hawaii - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Mass Screening
Neoplasms - diagnosis - ethnology - mortality - prevention & control
Pacific Islands - epidemiology
Patient Selection
Quality of Health Care - standards
Research
Abstract
To review and assess published findings from relevant cancer research studies in Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders and to develop strategies for designing and implementing successful cancer research studies in the future.
Data were collected primarily from MEDLINE and BIOSIS Preview searches of the English literature during a 30-year period for published reports of cancer surveillance studies and epidemiological and clinical cancer studies in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations. The cancer burden was critically assessed in the retrieved citations for each of the indigenous groups from Hawai'i, American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Palau, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
A review of the published literature revealed a lack of systematic data collection on cancer incidence and mortality in Pacific Islanders. Wide variations were found regarding the status of cancer research among ethnic groups. It is estimated that Native Hawaiians represent 0.1% of subjects accrued to cancer prevention trials, and that Pacific Islanders represent 0.5% of subjects in a large cancer screening trial.
The paucity of cancer data and clinical cancer research supports the need for increased attention to these indigenous populations to improve the quality of cancer care in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island communities.
PubMed ID
11189093 View in PubMed
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Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107789
Source
Pages 967-977 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):967-977
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Pamela K Miller
Viola Waghiyi
Gretchen Welfinger-Smith
Samuel Carter Byrne
Jane Kava
Jesse Gologergen
Lorraine Eckstein
Ronald Scrudato
Jeff Chiarenzelli
David O Carpenter
Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Author Affiliation
Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, AK 99503, USA. pamela@akaction.org
Source
Pages 967-977 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):967-977
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Health - methods - organization & administration
Fishes
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Health Policy
Humans
Islands - epidemiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Abstract
This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000-2012.
As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b-d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape--using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods.
Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north.
An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations.
As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23977641 View in PubMed
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65 records – page 1 of 7.