We report our experience with a modified mini-maze procedure and pulmonary vein isolation using radiofrequency energy for treating persistent atrial fibrillation during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Ninety-five patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease underwent open heart surgery combined with intraoperative irrigated radiofrequency ablation. Patients were randomized into the following three groups: CABG and irrigated radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation (CABG+PVI, n = 31); CABG and an irrigated radiofrequency modified mini-maze procedure (CABG+MM, n = 30); and isolated CABG (CABG alone, n = 34). All patients received implantable loop recorders.
No reoperation and no hospital mortality were recorded. Mean follow-up was 14.4 ± 9.7 months. The implantable loop recorder-determined freedom from atrial fibrillation was 80% in the CABG+PVI group, 86.2% in the CABG+MM group and 44.1% in the CABG alone group.
Patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease may benefit from intraoperative ablation to prevent relapse of arrhythmia.
Between June 1, 1976 and Mar. 31, 1983, the Sunnybrook Medical Centre Regional Trauma Unit in Toronto, Ont., admitted 145 patients with liver trauma; of these, 141 (97%) had sustained blunt liver trauma. Of 113 patients who underwent open peritoneal lavage, 112 had a true-positive lavage. Resuscitation was successful in 137 patients and 134 of these underwent laparotomy. Seventy-nine (59%) of the 134 patients required only minor surgical treatment; the other 55 (41%) required major surgical procedures. The overall mortality was 32% (47 of 145). Eight patients died during resuscitation but only one of them died of liver hemorrhage. Of the 39 patients who died after admission, the cause of death was head injury in 22, while 6 died of liver hemorrhage and 11 of other causes. Overall, liver hemorrhage was the cause of death in 15% of cases (7 of 47).
Center for Excellence in Atrial Fibrillation and EP Research-KU Cardiovascular Research Institute, Bloch Heart Rhythm Center, Mid America Cardiology, University of Kansas Hospital and Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. email@example.com
Higher current density at the proximal end of a six-hole catheter is not irrigated and thus could lead to uneven heating and possibly coagulum and charring. This study tested a novel 12-hole irrigated catheter with six additional holes at the proximal end that provides more uniform cooling during atrial flutter (AFL) ablation.
A total of 188 patients (28 females, 66?±?11 years) were treated for typical AFL at 22 sites in the USA and Canada using Cool Path Duo at 50 W and 45 °C at an irrigation rate of 13 ml/min. The results were compared to historical data from an AFL study which used a six-hole catheter with similar design.
A total of 2,725 RF lesions were applied in 188 patients with a mean RF duration of 18.2?±?11.7 min per procedure. Procedural success was achieved in 96.3 % (181 of 188) acutely and 98.3 % (173 of 176) patients at 3 months. Steam pops occurred in 0.6 % of lesions (15 of 2,725) without coagulum or charring… Compared to the six-hole irrigated tip catheter, the Cool Path Duo catheter delivered more power (33.8?±?5.9 vs. 29.7?±?5.2 W, p?
The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of self-administered vaginal tampon (VT) specimens for the detection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with that of cervicovaginal lavage specimens (CVL). Two hundred seventy-four paired VT and CVL specimens were collected prospectively from women at risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Specimens were treated and amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each woman served as her own control. One hundred and forty-four of 272 (52.9%) CVLs and 159 of 271 (58.7%) VTs contained HPV DNA sequences (correlation of 88%). The sensitivity and specificity of vaginal tampons reached 93.9% (138/147) and 80.5% (99/123), respectively. HPV typing results were concordant for 99 negative paired samples and 114 paired samples positive for the same type(s) (correlation of 78.9%). It is concluded that these sampling methods collect cells from different areas of the genital epithelium, highlighting the importance of further assessment of the comparative predictive value of HPV detection in each sample.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the addition of ethanol to water for irrigation during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and monitoring breath ethanol could be used to detect irrigant absorption and to limit free plasma haemoglobin in cases of absorption. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients (46 in Piteå, Sweden and 54 in Uong bi, Vietnam) underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) under an intermittent irrigation technique using water containing 2% ethanol. An expired breath alcohol meter was used to monitor ethanol in the patients' breath every 5 min. Blood samples taken after TURP were assessed for free haemoglobin in 99 patients, and other markers of haemolysis were also evaluated in the Swedish group. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients had detectable ethanol in their breath. There was a close correlation between the maximum ethanol reading during surgery and the level of free plasma haemoglobin after TURP (r = 0.90, P
Coronavirus infection (CVI) was studied in 227 patients hospitalized in the clinic of the Research Institute of Hematology and Transfusiology in 1993-2003 with diagnosed acute and chronic leucosis, multiple myelogenic disease and aplastic anemia. Their blood sera and secretions of the nasal cavity were examined in the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test with dried standard erythrocyte diagnostic preparations. CVI was shown to be activated in three year cycles in immunodeficient patients, which occurred, respectively, in 66.1, 56.9, 47.8 and 51.6% of cases in the above mentioned groups of patients. In 87% of cases CVI was associated with other respiratory pathogens, the following being prevailed: respiratory syncytial virus (37.9%), parainfluenza virus (32.2%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (36.8%). CVI was provoked by such factors as the course of the main disease and specific treatment, previous respiratory infections of other etiology with M. pneumoniae infection playing the leading role (60%). The most severe course of CVI was observed in patients with acute leucosis (in 75% of cases accompanied by lesions of lower respiratory tracts). The use of the highly sensitive IHA test made it possible to determine the potential for both serum and local antibodies production in the patients under observation.
STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis following international guidelines and taking the societal viewpoint. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of transanal irrigation using a self-administered irrigation system when compared with conservative bowel management. SETTING: A randomized clinical trial was conducted at five spinal centres situated in Denmark, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom and Sweden. Estimates of resources and unit costs were made for the German health care system. METHODS: Efficacy outcomes were drawn from a randomized controlled trial conducted in 2003-2005. Adult spinal cord-injured patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks with either transanal irrigation using Peristeen Anal Irrigation or to conservative bowel management. Costs were calculated based on results from the clinical trial and on 24 interviews conducted in Germany. Unit costs were obtained from the Federal Statistical Office Germany and product list prices. RESULTS: When comparing outcome measures at termination, transanal irrigation significantly reduced symptoms of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Product-related costs were higher for transanal irrigation using the self-administered system; however, costs for a carer to help with bowel management and changes/washing due to leakage were lower. For transanal irrigation, costs associated with urinary tract infections and patient time spent were reduced. Thus, the total cost to society is lower when patients use transanal irrigation. The results were shown to be robust in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Transanal irrigation using a self-administered system reduces symptoms of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and results in a lower total cost to society than conservative bowel management. SPONSORSHIP: The study was supported by Coloplast A/S.
The nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was compared with virus isolation and serology to establish which is the best method for the diagnosis of active cytomegalovirus, (CMV) infection. Samples of blood leucocytes, urine and throat washings from immunosuppressed patients and patients with congenitally acquired CMV infection, as well as from healthy persons, were examined with PCR. CMV DNA was detected in all samples from which CMV could be isolated, but not from any sample from healthy adults, whether CMV seropositive or CMV seronegative. In contrast to the findings in healthy persons, CMV genomes were frequently detected in urine and throat washings from immunosuppressed, CMV-seropositive patients without symptoms of CMV infection. The appearance of CMV genomes in blood cells in immunosuppressed CMV-seronegative patients may be the first sign of primary CMV infection. Congenital CMV infection could be rapidly and safely diagnosed when urine samples were examined by PCR. Nested PCR is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of active CMV infection, when selected materials are used.
To observe the effect of imaging techniques on the diagnostic pattern of sinusitis in primary care.
A multicentre survey.
14 health centres with varying facilities for clinical imaging.
446 adult patients with a suspicion of acute maxillary sinusitis. Ultrasound or radiography facilities existed in 337 cases while 109 could only be judged clinically. MAIN outcome measures--The use of ultrasound, radiography, laboratory tests, irrigation and control visits. The final number of patients with sinusitis in different facility groups.
When available, ultrasound was used in 82-92% and radiography in 6-32% of cases. The ultrasound finding showed mucosal thickening or was difficult to interpret in every third case; one half of these were interpreted as sinusitis and the rest were considered healthy. In total, sinusitis was diagnosed in 84-88% when ultrasound or radiography only could be used, and in 77% when both techniques were available (p