OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography with a newly developed sonographic contrast medium as a means of guidance for percutaneous ablation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions not detected by conventional sonography. METHODS: We examined 85 patients with 108 hepatocellular carcinoma lesions that were identified as hypervascular by multidetector-row computed tomography by using contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography after injection of Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway), a lipid-stabilized suspension of a perfluorobutane gas microbubble contrast agent. We scanned the whole liver by this modality at a low mechanical index in the late phase to detect lesions not detected by conventional sonography and then scanned the lesions again by this modality at a high mechanical index to visualize tumor vessels and enhancement. We also performed percutaneous ablation therapy guided by this modality to treat viable hepatocellular carcinoma lesions that could not be detected by conventional sonography. RESULTS: Conventional sonography identified 90 (83%) of 108 hepatocellular carcinoma lesions; 15 (14%) additional viable lesions not detected by conventional sonography were detected in the late phase of contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography at a low mechanical index, and tumor vessels and enhancement were observed in the late phase at a high mechanical index. Contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography diagnosed 105 (97%) of the 108 viable hepatocellular carcinoma lesions, and 14 (93%) of the 15 lesions not detected by conventional sonography were successfully treated by percutaneous ablation therapy guided by this modality. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography is useful for guidance of percutaneous ablation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions not detected by conventional sonography.
OBJECTIVE: Intoxication is one of the most common causes of admissions to emergency department in pediatric age group. Incidence of iron poisoning gradually increased because of wide spread use of iron containing drugs. METHOD: In this report, we present five cases of iron ingestion who were admitted to our emergency department within a year. RESULT: Whole bowel irrigation in addition to gastric lavage with an iron dose of over 50 mg/kg as well as deferoxamine treatment for patients in whom clinical and laboratory indications are present. CONCLUSION: The prompt recognition and treatment of children with acute iron poisoning is the single and the most critical point for decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with iron containing products.
We report an outbreak of acute selenium poisoning among suckling pigs; 92 piglets were found dead or moribund without preceding symptoms. Necropsy revealed acute congestion of liver and small intestine. The source was a powdered iron supplement contaminated by sodium selenite.
Although determining iron intakes is essential in assessing adequacy of iron in the diet, estimating iron availability may be more useful for evaluating whether iron requirements are met. Our objectives were to describe the dietary information, analytical steps, and computer algorithms needed for iron bioavailability adjustments and to demonstrate the effects of various dietary factors on calculated iron absorption. Our study was based on 9890 women and children participating in the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Between August 1992 and February 1993, two 24-h recalls were collected from each participant, and total, heme and nonheme iron intakes were calculated. Nonheme iron availability was adjusted for meat, fish and poultry and vitamin C consumed in the same meal and then further adjusted for tea and phytates. We found mean total iron intakes to be comparable to those of women of reproductive age in the United States and lower than those of United States children. When these intakes were adjusted for enhancers and inhibitors of absorption, the iron bioavailability in these vulnerable Russian groups was extremely low. Mean bioavailable iron as well as the 25th-75th percentile ranges of intake were below the bottom of the range of requirements, indicating that iron adequacy in this population may be considerably less than expected based on total iron intakes alone. Furthermore, rural and urban food availability had a significant effect on iron bioavailability. Future research on dietary iron adequacy should be based on estimates of available iron by collecting meal-level dietary data and using detailed information on mixed dishes and phytates.