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Alexithymia, emotions and PTSD; findings from a longitudinal study of refugees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45803
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):185-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Hans Peter Söndergaard
Töres Theorell
Author Affiliation
Swedish National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Stockholm. hans.peter.sondergaard@phs.ki.se
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2004;58(3):185-91
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Emotions
Female
Humans
Incidence
Iraq - ethnology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Refugees - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to assess alexithymia by means of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and The Emotion Protocol (EP) in a group of refugees. Eighty-six subjects were willing to participate. At last follow-up, 33 non-PTSD and 22 PTSD subjects had complete data. Subjects with PTSD had higher scores on the TAS-20 (F = 4.314, df = 77, p = 0.041), but on the subscale level, this was significant only with regard to Factor I, difficulties identifying feelings (F = 5.316, df = 77, p = 0.024). TAS Factor I and to a lower extent TAS Factor II (difficulties naming feelings) were significantly associated with the self-rated presence of dysphoric affects. At follow-up, an increase in TAS Factor I score was associated with increased prevalence of self-rated symptoms of PTSD, but not depression. Decrease in prolactin was associated with significant increase of TAS Factor I (rho = -0.396, n = 54, p = 0.003). The present study indicates that alexithymia as measured by TAS-20 is indeed associated with symptoms of PTSD. This association is almost exclusively explained by the TAS Factor I subscale and is in turn associated with a high level of self-reported dysphoric affect. The longitudinal inverse correlation with prolactin points to the possibility of an underlying disturbance in serotonergic and/or dopaminergic systems. The results thus indicate that secondary, or post-traumatic, alexithymia is a measure of suppressed or warded-off negative affects.
PubMed ID
15204204 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of the mental status of rejected asylum seekers in two Danish asylum centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature88826
Source
Torture. 2009;19(1):51-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Schwarz-Nielsen Kathrine Hvid
Elklitt Ask
Author Affiliation
University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. trine_hvid@hotmail.com
Source
Torture. 2009;19(1):51-9
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Mental Status Schedule
Middle Aged
Probability
Questionnaires
Refugees - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Statistics, nonparametric
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Stress, Psychological
Time Factors
War
Young Adult
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: International studies have shown high incidences of symptoms regarding anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among asylum seekers of different ethnicities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among rejected Iraqi asylum seekers in two Danish Red Cross asylum centers. Factors such as the length of stay in an asylum center and the number of traumatic events were considered as risk factors associated with the degree of psychological morbidity. METHOD: In 2007, 53 rejected Iraqi asylum seekers from two Danish Red Cross centers completed a survey based on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-IV (HTQ) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). The response rate was 36%. The analyses focused on the impact of gender, age, marriage, religion, the length of stay at the asylum center, and the number of traumatic events on the severity of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. FINDINGS: Of all participants, 94% were found to have symptoms of anxiety, 100% had symptoms of depression, and 77% had symptoms of PTSD. The participants had experienced or witnessed an average of 8.5 traumatic events before their arrival in Denmark. There was no significant association between the number of traumatic events, and the symptoms of PTSD. In addition, there was no significant difference in the length of stay and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD despite the fact that 79% of the participants had stayed in an asylum center for 5-10 years or more. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of the data, such as the small sample, this study showed that the prevalence rates of psychopathology in Iraqi asylum seekers in Denmark were alarmingly high. Therefore, it is recommended that systematic screening of all detained asylum seekers in Denmark is introduced. Given the degree of mental health problems it is also recommended that procedures be changed and that treatment should be offered to asylum seekers who are detained in Danish asylum centers.
PubMed ID
19491487 View in PubMed
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The association between apolipoprotein M and insulin resistance varies with country of birth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265598
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Nov;24(11):1174-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
A A Memon
L. Bennet
B. Zöller
X. Wang
K. Palmér
B. Dahlbäck
J. Sundquist
K. Sundquist
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Nov;24(11):1174-80
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Apolipoproteins - blood - genetics
Body mass index
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - ethnology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - ethnology
Iraq - ethnology
Lipocalins - blood - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden - epidemiology
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) differs according to ethnicity. Levels of apolipoprotein M (ApoM) have been shown to be decreased in T2DM. However, its role in different ethnicities is not known. We examined the differences in plasma ApoM levels in Swedish residents born in Iraq (Iraqis) and Sweden (Swedes) in relation to T2DM and insulin resistance (IR).
Iraqis and Swedes, aged 45-65 years residing in Rosengård area of Malmö were randomly selected from census records and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma levels of ApoM were quantified in 162 participants (Iraqis, n = 91; Swedes, n = 71) by a sandwich ELISA method. Age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI) adjusted plasma ApoM levels differed by country of birth, with Swedes having 18% higher levels compared to Iraqis (p = 0.001). ApoM levels (mean ± SD) were significantly decreased in Swedes with T2DM (0.73 ± 0.18) compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (0.89 ± 0.24; p = 0.03). By contrast, no significant difference in ApoM levels was found between Iraqis with T2DM (0.70 ± 0.17) and those with NGT (0.73 ± 0.13; p = 0.41). In multivariate linear regression analysis with an interaction term between IR and country of birth, low ApoM levels remained significantly associated with IR in Swedes (p = 0.008), independently of age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides, but not in Iraqis (p = 0.35).
Our results show that ApoM levels differ according to country of birth and are associated with IR and T2DM only in Swedes.
PubMed ID
24984825 View in PubMed
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The association between mental health symptoms and mobility limitation among Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants: a population based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266869
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:275
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Shadia Rask
Anu E Castaneda
Päivikki Koponen
Päivi Sainio
Sari Stenholm
Jaana Suvisaari
Teppo Juntunen
Tapio Halla
Tommi Härkänen
Seppo Koskinen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:275
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Checklist
Chronic Disease - ethnology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - ethnology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Mental Disorders - ethnology
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Russia - ethnology
Somalia - ethnology
Somatoform Disorders - ethnology
Transients and Migrants - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Research has demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between physical function and depression, but studies on their association in migrant populations are scarce. We examined the association between mental health symptoms and mobility limitation in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland.
We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu). The participants comprised 1357 persons of Russian, Somali or Kurdish origin aged 18-64 years. Mobility limitation included self-reported difficulties in walking 500?m or stair climbing. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and symptoms of somatization using the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R). A comparison group of the general Finnish population was selected from the Health 2011 study.
Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with mobility limitation in women (Russians odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-6.94, Somalis OR 6.41; 95% CI 2.02-20.29 and Kurds OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.41-5.04), after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, obesity and chronic diseases. Also somatization increased the odds for mobility limitation in women (Russians OR 4.29; 95% CI 1.76-10.44, Somalis OR 18.83; 95% CI 6.15-57.61 and Kurds OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.91-6.52). Depressive symptoms were associated with mobility limitation in Russian and Kurdish women (Russians OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.19 and Kurds OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.39-4.99). Anxiety symptoms and somatization were associated with mobility limitation in Kurdish men when adjusted for socio-demographic factors, but not after adjusting for obesity and chronic diseases. Finnish women had similar associations as the migrant women, but Finnish men and Kurdish men showed varying associations.
Mental health symptoms are significantly associated with mobility limitation both in the studied migrant populations and in the general Finnish population. The joint nature of mental health symptoms and mobility limitation should be recognized by health professionals, also when working with migrants. This association should be addressed when developing health services and health promotion.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25884326 View in PubMed
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The association between plasma proneurotensin and glucose regulation is modified by country of birth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308917
Source
Sci Rep. 2019 09 20; 9(1):13640
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-20-2019
Author
A Fawad
P M Nilsson
J Struck
A Bergmann
O Melander
L Bennet
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
Sci Rep. 2019 09 20; 9(1):13640
Date
09-20-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis - ethnology
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Glucose - metabolism
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Neurotensin - blood
Protein Precursors - blood
Sweden - ethnology
Transients and Migrants
Abstract
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically in Middle Eastern populations that represent the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today. As proneurotensin predicts T2D, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in proneurotensin levels across populations of Middle Eastern and Caucasian origin and to study its associations with indices of glucose regulation. Participants in the age 30 to 75 years, living in Malmö, Sweden, and born in Iraq or Sweden, were recruited from the census register. Anthropometrics and fasting samples were collected and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted assessing insulin secretion (DIo) as well as insulin sensitivity (ISI). A total of 2155 individuals participated in the study, 1398 were Iraqi-born and 757 were Swedish-born participants. Higher fasting proneurotensin levels were observed in Iraqi- compared to Swedish-born participants (137.5 vs. 119.8 pmol/L; p?
PubMed ID
31541150 View in PubMed
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BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284741
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Dec 09;16(1):1242
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-09-2016
Author
Louise Bennet
Karin Stenkula
Samuel W Cushman
Kerstin Brismar
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Dec 09;16(1):1242
Date
Dec-09-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Fasting - blood
Female
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - diagnosis - ethnology
Reference Values
Risk factors
Sweden
Waist Circumference
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes.
Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours.
In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI?
Notes
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PubMed ID
27938404 View in PubMed
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Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278650
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2016 Mar;19(4):703-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Navnit Kaur Grewal
Lene Frost Andersen
Daniel Sellen
Annhild Mosdøl
Liv Elin Torheim
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2016 Mar;19(4):703-15
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Bottle Feeding
Breast Feeding
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant Food
Infant Formula
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant, Newborn
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Mothers
Norway
Parity
Somalia - ethnology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Water
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007.
Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate.
One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated.
Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2).
Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.
PubMed ID
26105703 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261808
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Dec;42(8):734-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Monica Löfvander
Andreas Rosenblad
Tony Wiklund
Halina Bennström
Jerzy Leppert
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Dec;42(8):734-42
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Diagnostic Self Evaluation
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iraq - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Self Report
Somalia - ethnology
Sweden
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls.
A prospective case-control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18-65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up.
There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group.
These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants' fast integration into society.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25249583 View in PubMed
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Cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers among immigrants in Sweden: importance of age at migration and duration of residence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91803
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jan;45(1):107-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Beiki Omid
Allebeck Peter
Nordqvist Tobias
Moradi Tahereh
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine/Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. omid.beiki@ki.se
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jan;45(1):107-18
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Age Distribution
Aged
Bosnia-Herzegovina - ethnology
Child
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Emigrants and Immigrants
Endometrial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Europe, Eastern - ethnology
Female
Finland - ethnology
Humans
Incidence
Iran - ethnology
Iraq - ethnology
Middle Aged
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Poland - ethnology
Registries
Risk
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
In order to compare the risk of gynaecologic cancer among foreign-born women to the risk among those born in Sweden and to elucidate risk of cancer in relation to age at migration and duration of residence, we followed a cohort of 5.3 million women between 1969 and 2004 in Sweden. Through linkage with the national cancer register, we estimated cancer risk as rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression. We reported RRs adjusted for age, calendar year of follow-up and years of education. Overall, 18,247 cases of cervical, 35,290 cases of endometrial and 32,227 cases of ovarian cancers occurred during 117 million person-years of follow-up. We found that adjusted RRs of all the three cancers were lower or the same among foreign-born women compared to those born in Sweden. As for cervical cancer, women aged 35-49 years born in Poland and Bosnia and women aged 50 years or more born in South America showed an increased risk, which was related to increasing age at migration. The risk was lowest among women born in Iran, Iraq, Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) and Finland, and highest among women born in Bosnia and Eastern Europe during their first 5 years since immigration. RRs for endometrial and ovarian cancers did not vary by duration of residence or by age at migration. Health care providers should be aware of the higher risk of cervical cancer among immigrants from high-risk areas, especially among those who immigrate at older ages. On the other hand, protective factors for ovarian and endometrial cancers seem to be retained upon migration.
PubMed ID
18829301 View in PubMed
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Changes in dietary intake following a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention among Iraqi immigrants to Sweden at high risk of type 2 diabetes: a randomised trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292380
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Oct; 20(15):2827-2838
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Faiza Siddiqui
Vicky Winther
Azra Kurbasic
Emily Sonestedt
Katarina Balcker Lundgren
Staffan Lindeberg
Peter M Nilsson
Louise Bennet
Author Affiliation
1Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö,Lund University,Family Medicine, building 28,floor 11,Jan Waldenströms gata 35,205 02 Malmö,Sweden.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Oct; 20(15):2827-2838
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Keywords
Acculturation
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - ethnology
Diet
Diet Records
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Emigrants and Immigrants
Fatty Acids - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Iraq - ethnology
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Waist Circumference
Abstract
To investigate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention for changing dietary intake, particularly energy, fat and fibre intakes, in the intervention group (IG) compared with the control group (CG).
Randomised controlled trial.
IG (n 50) and CG (n 46). The IG was offered seven group sessions, including one cooking class, over a period of 4 months. The participants filled out 4 d food diaries at the start, mid and end of the study.
Iraqi-born residents of Malmö, Sweden, at increased risk for developing diabetes.
At baseline, participants' fat intake was high (40 % of total energy intake (E%)). The predefined study goals of obtaining
PubMed ID
28738912 View in PubMed
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