INTRODUCTION: On Denmark's decision to join the war in Iraq, it was decided to immunise all personnel to be deployed there with anthrax vaccine. This paper describes the types and frequency of adverse reactions to the vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2003 and February 2004, 1,899 immunisations against anthrax in 755 personnel were registered at the health care facilities of the Danish Defence. RESULTS: No serious or life-threatening adverse reactions were reported. The data showed a statistically significant decrease in adverse reactions between the four immunisation series. For males, adverse reactions after the second immunisation depended on possible adverse reactions to the first immunisation. In females, this correlation was not found. No differences in the frequency of adverse reactions between males and females were found. DISCUSSION: None of the vaccinated persons suffered serious or life-threatening adverse reactions. Compared to other studies on self-reported adverse reactions, the overall frequency was low. The data showed a statistically significant decrease in adverse reactions between the four immunisation series. This has been described in comparable studies. The correlation between adverse reactions in the second immunisation being dependent on adverse reactions to the first immunisation has been partly confirmed by other studies. No differences between the sexes were found, probably because only a few females were included in the study. In case of a significant level of threat concerning biological weapons, immunisation against anthrax is considered appropriate.
The objective of the present study was to assess alexithymia by means of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and The Emotion Protocol (EP) in a group of refugees. Eighty-six subjects were willing to participate. At last follow-up, 33 non-PTSD and 22 PTSD subjects had complete data. Subjects with PTSD had higher scores on the TAS-20 (F = 4.314, df = 77, p = 0.041), but on the subscale level, this was significant only with regard to Factor I, difficulties identifying feelings (F = 5.316, df = 77, p = 0.024). TAS Factor I and to a lower extent TAS Factor II (difficulties naming feelings) were significantly associated with the self-rated presence of dysphoric affects. At follow-up, an increase in TAS Factor I score was associated with increased prevalence of self-rated symptoms of PTSD, but not depression. Decrease in prolactin was associated with significant increase of TAS Factor I (rho = -0.396, n = 54, p = 0.003). The present study indicates that alexithymia as measured by TAS-20 is indeed associated with symptoms of PTSD. This association is almost exclusively explained by the TAS Factor I subscale and is in turn associated with a high level of self-reported dysphoric affect. The longitudinal inverse correlation with prolactin points to the possibility of an underlying disturbance in serotonergic and/or dopaminergic systems. The results thus indicate that secondary, or post-traumatic, alexithymia is a measure of suppressed or warded-off negative affects.
Human C1q deficiency is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and increased susceptibility to severe bacterial infections. These patients require extensive medical therapy and some develop treatment-resistant disease. Because C1q is produced by monocytes, it has been speculated that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) may cure this disorder.
We have so far treated 5 patients with C1q deficiency. In 3 cases, SLE symptoms remained relatively mild after the start of medical therapy, but 2 patients developed treatment-resistant SLE, and we decided to pursue treatment with allo-HSCT. For this purpose, we chose a conditioning regimen composed of treosulfan (14 g/m) and fludarabine (30 mg/m) started on day -6 and given for 3 and 5 consecutive days, respectively. Thymoglobulin was given at a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was composed of cyclosporine and methotrexate.
A 9-year-old boy and a 12-year-old girl with refractory SLE restored C1q production after allo-HSCT. This resulted in normal functional properties of the classical complement pathway followed by reduced severity of SLE symptoms. The boy developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, which resolved after treatment with rituximab and donor lymphocyte infusion. Unfortunately, donor lymphocyte infusion induced severe cortisone-resistant gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease, and the patient died from multiple organ failure 4 months after transplantation. The girl is doing well 33 months after transplantation, and clinically, all signs of SLE have resolved.
Allo-HSCT can cure SLE in human C1q deficiency and should be considered early in subjects resistant to medical therapy.
INTRODUCTION: International studies have shown high incidences of symptoms regarding anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among asylum seekers of different ethnicities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among rejected Iraqi asylum seekers in two Danish Red Cross asylum centers. Factors such as the length of stay in an asylum center and the number of traumatic events were considered as risk factors associated with the degree of psychological morbidity. METHOD: In 2007, 53 rejected Iraqi asylum seekers from two Danish Red Cross centers completed a survey based on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-IV (HTQ) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 (HSCL-25). The response rate was 36%. The analyses focused on the impact of gender, age, marriage, religion, the length of stay at the asylum center, and the number of traumatic events on the severity of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. FINDINGS: Of all participants, 94% were found to have symptoms of anxiety, 100% had symptoms of depression, and 77% had symptoms of PTSD. The participants had experienced or witnessed an average of 8.5 traumatic events before their arrival in Denmark. There was no significant association between the number of traumatic events, and the symptoms of PTSD. In addition, there was no significant difference in the length of stay and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD despite the fact that 79% of the participants had stayed in an asylum center for 5-10 years or more. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations of the data, such as the small sample, this study showed that the prevalence rates of psychopathology in Iraqi asylum seekers in Denmark were alarmingly high. Therefore, it is recommended that systematic screening of all detained asylum seekers in Denmark is introduced. Given the degree of mental health problems it is also recommended that procedures be changed and that treatment should be offered to asylum seekers who are detained in Danish asylum centers.
Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) differs according to ethnicity. Levels of apolipoprotein M (ApoM) have been shown to be decreased in T2DM. However, its role in different ethnicities is not known. We examined the differences in plasma ApoM levels in Swedish residents born in Iraq (Iraqis) and Sweden (Swedes) in relation to T2DM and insulin resistance (IR).
Iraqis and Swedes, aged 45-65 years residing in Rosengård area of Malmö were randomly selected from census records and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma levels of ApoM were quantified in 162 participants (Iraqis, n = 91; Swedes, n = 71) by a sandwich ELISA method. Age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI) adjusted plasma ApoM levels differed by country of birth, with Swedes having 18% higher levels compared to Iraqis (p = 0.001). ApoM levels (mean ± SD) were significantly decreased in Swedes with T2DM (0.73 ± 0.18) compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (0.89 ± 0.24; p = 0.03). By contrast, no significant difference in ApoM levels was found between Iraqis with T2DM (0.70 ± 0.17) and those with NGT (0.73 ± 0.13; p = 0.41). In multivariate linear regression analysis with an interaction term between IR and country of birth, low ApoM levels remained significantly associated with IR in Swedes (p = 0.008), independently of age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides, but not in Iraqis (p = 0.35).
Our results show that ApoM levels differ according to country of birth and are associated with IR and T2DM only in Swedes.
Research has demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between physical function and depression, but studies on their association in migrant populations are scarce. We examined the association between mental health symptoms and mobility limitation in Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland.
We used data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu). The participants comprised 1357 persons of Russian, Somali or Kurdish origin aged 18-64 years. Mobility limitation included self-reported difficulties in walking 500?m or stair climbing. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and symptoms of somatization using the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R). A comparison group of the general Finnish population was selected from the Health 2011 study.
Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with mobility limitation in women (Russians odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-6.94, Somalis OR 6.41; 95% CI 2.02-20.29 and Kurds OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.41-5.04), after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, obesity and chronic diseases. Also somatization increased the odds for mobility limitation in women (Russians OR 4.29; 95% CI 1.76-10.44, Somalis OR 18.83; 95% CI 6.15-57.61 and Kurds OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.91-6.52). Depressive symptoms were associated with mobility limitation in Russian and Kurdish women (Russians OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.19 and Kurds OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.39-4.99). Anxiety symptoms and somatization were associated with mobility limitation in Kurdish men when adjusted for socio-demographic factors, but not after adjusting for obesity and chronic diseases. Finnish women had similar associations as the migrant women, but Finnish men and Kurdish men showed varying associations.
Mental health symptoms are significantly associated with mobility limitation both in the studied migrant populations and in the general Finnish population. The joint nature of mental health symptoms and mobility limitation should be recognized by health professionals, also when working with migrants. This association should be addressed when developing health services and health promotion.
The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes.
Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours.
In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI?
Cites: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Jul;105(1):79-8724842242
To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007.
Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate.
One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated.
Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2).
Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.
Using a sample of Canadian Forces personnel (N = 490) returning from deployment in Afghanistan, we tested a model of reintegration experiences, with a focus on affective organizational commitment, support factors, posttraumatic stress symptoms, changes in alcohol use, and turnover intentions. The model provided an excellent fit to the data, although homecoming experiences were not associated with commitment as predicted. No differences emerged between novice (single tour) and experienced (multiple tours) personnel, although the number of tours was associated with increased affective commitment as expected.