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34 records – page 1 of 4.

The 6th Klaas Breur memorial lecture, 1987. The Chernobyl accident--impact Western Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25858
Source
Radiother Oncol. 1988 May;12(1):1-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1988

129I in the oceans: origins and applications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6779
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 30;237-238:31-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-30-1999
Author
G M Raisbeck
F. Yiou
Author Affiliation
Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay, France. raisbeck@csnsm.in2p3.fr
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 30;237-238:31-41
Date
Sep-30-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods
France
Great Britain
Iodine - analysis
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Oceans and Seas
Radioactive Tracers
Radioactive Waste - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Technetium - analysis
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Pollution, Radioactive - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The quantity of the long lived (half-life 15.7 million years) radioactive isotope 129I in the pre-nuclear age ocean was approximately 100 kg. Various nuclear related activities, including weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, Chernobyl and other authorized or non-authorized dumping of radioactive waste have increased the ocean inventory of 129I by more than one order of magnitude. The most important of these sources are the direct marine discharges from the commercial reprocessing facilities at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) which have discharged approximately 1640 kg in the English Channel, and approximately 720 kg in the Irish Sea, respectively. We discuss how this 129I can be used as both a 'pathway' and 'transit time' tracer in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, as well as a parameter for distinguishing between reprocessed and non-reprocessed nuclear waste in the ocean, and as a proxy for the transport and dilution of other soluble pollutants input to the North Sea.
PubMed ID
10568263 View in PubMed
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131I content in the human thyroid estimated from direct measurements of the inhabitants of Russian areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30700
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
A A Bratilova
I A Zvonova
M I Balonov
N G Shishkanov
V I Trushin
M. Hoshi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira st. 8, 197136, St Petersburg, Russia. bratilov@comset.net
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Computer simulation
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Radiometry - methods
Russia
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Ukraine
Abstract
The method of processing and the results of measurements of 131I content in the thyroids of Russian people performed in May-June 1986 are presented. The contribution of radiation from Cs radionuclides in the human body was taken into account in the processing of measurement data with an SRP-68-01 device. The greatest individual 131I content was found in the thyroids of inhabitants of the Bryansk region, up to 250-350 kBq, and in the Tula and Orel regions, up to 100 kBq. The average 131I thyroid activity in the middle of May 1986 reached 80 kBq for inhabitants of some settlements in the Bryansk region, 5-8 kBq in the Tula region and 5 kBq in the Orel region.
PubMed ID
14527038 View in PubMed
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Age- and sex-specific relative thyroid radiation exposure to 131I in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32325
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
W F Heidenreich
I. Kayro
M. Chepurny
P. Jacob
V. Spak
G M Goulko
H G Paretzke
Author Affiliation
GSF--Institut für Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany. heidenreich@gsf.de
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infant
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Thyroid Gland - metabolism - radionuclide imaging
Ukraine
Abstract
The age- and sex-dependence of the 131I induced count rates is determined for the measurements performed in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident on the thyroids of over 60,000 persons. For this, the individual measurements are scaled in such a way that the mean values over age and sex on one side and the mean values over measurement series on the other side are normalized to one. The resulting distribution of all scaled measurements is roughly log-normal. Half of them lie within a factor 1.6 of the median. 131I induced count rates have a minimum at birth year 1986, about half the value of adults. The maximum count rates with about 30% above adults are reached for males around age 16 y. The count rates are up to about 40% (at age 14-17 y) higher for males than for females. The results are within statistical uncertainties independent of the geographical area and the urban or rural nature of the settlements. Starting from the relative count rates, the age- and sex-dependence is calculated for the thyroid activities 1 mo after the accident for the integrated activities and for the doses. The dose of young children is a factor of about 6.5 higher than that of adults. Uncertainties are estimated throughout.
PubMed ID
11219536 View in PubMed
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Anthropogenic iodine-129 in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas: numerical modeling and prognoses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172161
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2006 Apr;52(4):380-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
V. Alfimov
G. Possnert
A. Aldahan
Author Affiliation
Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. alfimovv@phys.ethz.ch
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2006 Apr;52(4):380-5
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Computer simulation
Geography
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Models, Theoretical
Oceans and Seas
Time Factors
Water Movements
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
A numerical model simulation has been used to predict extent and variability in the anthropogenic (129)I pollution in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas region over a period of 100 years. The source function of (129)I used in the model is represented by a well-known history of discharges from the Sellafield and La Hague nuclear reprocessing facilities. The simulations suggest a fast transport and large inventory of the anthropogenic (129)I in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. In a fictitious case of abrupt stop of the discharges, a rapid decline of inventories is observed in all compartments except the North Atlantic Ocean, the deep Nordic Seas and the deep Arctic Ocean. Within 15 years after the stop of releases, the model prediction indicates that near-equilibrium conditions are reached in all compartments.
PubMed ID
16266731 View in PubMed
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The BRMD thyroid-neck phantom: design and construction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211437
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Aug;71(2):211-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1996
Author
G H Kramer
K. Gamarnik
L. Noël
L. Burns
D. Meyerhof
Author Affiliation
Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Aug;71(2):211-4
Date
Aug-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Neck
Phantoms, Imaging
Postal Service
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation
Thyroid Gland
Abstract
The Human Monitoring Laboratory, which acts as the Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for In Vivo monitoring, has constructed a robust neck-thyroid phantom for use in the Canadian Thyroid Intercomparison Program. The phantom is rugged and capable of being distributed through the mail with no expectation of a leak of radioactive materials; it is anthropomorphic; the thyroid inserts simulate 125I and 131I; the phantom can be used to mimic different layers of adipose tissue over the thyroid insert; and it is cost effective. This paper describes the design criteria and the manufacturing process; the performance characteristics have been described in an earlier publication.
PubMed ID
8690605 View in PubMed
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Calculations of individual doses for Techa River Cohort members exposed to atmospheric radioiodine from Mayak releases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287202
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2017 Nov;178-179:156-167
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Bruce A Napier
Paul W Eslinger
Evgenia I Tolstykh
Marina I Vorobiova
Elena E Tokareva
Boris N Akhramenko
Victor A Krivoschapov
Marina O Degteva
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2017 Nov;178-179:156-167
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Radioactive - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Atmosphere - chemistry
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Monte Carlo Method
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Abstract
Time-dependent thyroid doses were reconstructed for over 29,000 Techa River Cohort members living near the Mayak production facilities from 131I released to the atmosphere for all relevant exposure pathways. The calculational approach uses four general steps: 1) construct estimates of releases of 131I to the air from production facilities; 2) model the transport of 131I in the air and subsequent deposition on the ground and vegetation; 3) model the accumulation of 131I in environmental media; and 4) calculate individualized doses. The dose calculations are implemented in a Monte Carlo framework that produces best estimates and confidence intervals of dose time-histories. Other radionuclide contributors to thyroid dose were evaluated. The 131I contribution was 75-99% of the thyroid dose. The mean total thyroid dose for cohort members was 193 mGy and the median was 53 mGy. Thyroid doses for about 3% of cohort members were larger than 1 Gy. About 7% of children born in 1940-1950 had doses larger than 1 Gy. The uncertainty in the 131I dose estimates is low enough for this approach to be used in regional epidemiological studies.
PubMed ID
28843165 View in PubMed
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The Chernobyl accident. Transport of radionuclides to man living in northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233948
Source
Acta Oncol. 1988;27(6b):841-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
Author
L. Olofsson
H. Svensson
Author Affiliation
Radiation Physics Department, University of Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Acta Oncol. 1988;27(6b):841-9
Date
1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation monitoring
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Sweden
Ukraine
Abstract
The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, less than 0.1 mSv, as the cows were stabled. The 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8,000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests.
PubMed ID
3233171 View in PubMed
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Chernobyl--the radiological impact on Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233454
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1988 Mar;39(1):37-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1988
Author
W. Huda
A M Sourkes
B L Tracy
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Physics, Manitoba Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Source
Can Assoc Radiol J. 1988 Mar;39(1):37-41
Date
Mar-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Animals
Canada
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Humans
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Milk - analysis
Nuclear Reactors
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radioactive Pollutants - analysis
Rain
Ruthenium Radioisotopes - analysis
Ukraine
Abstract
On 26 April 1986, an accident at a Ukrainian nuclear reactor at Chernobyl triggered the release of large quantities of fission products into the atmosphere. After 7 May 1986 measurable quantities of ruthenium-103, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 were detected in environmental sampling carried out in all regions of Canada. Maximum airborne concentrations for each radionuclide were of the order of a few mBq.m-3 and contaminated milk samples on average contained less than 1Bq.L-1 of iodine-131 and cesium-137. The mean value of the effective dose equivalent for an adult Canadian in the two months following the accident is calculated to be 0.28 microSv. As this total radiation dose is about 10(-33) of the dose from natural background during the same period, the resultant radiological detriment is concluded to be negligible.
PubMed ID
2966167 View in PubMed
Less detail

Detection of anthropogenic radionuclides by the CA002 monitoring station for the comprehensive test ban treaty.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195815
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Feb;80(2):126-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
D F Measday
T J Stocki
L R Mason
D L Williams
Author Affiliation
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Feb;80(2):126-36
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Bromine Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
International Agencies
International Cooperation
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis
Nuclear Warfare
Radiation Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Radioisotopes - analysis
Radon Daughters - analysis
Sensitivity and specificity
Sodium Radioisotopes - analysis
Technetium - analysis
Abstract
A worldwide monitoring system for radioactive aerosols is being implemented for verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. These 80 stations will detect airborne radioactivity not only from nuclear explosions but also from other anthropogenic and natural sources. A prototype unit has been in operation since April 1996 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It is a very sensitive system and reports clear signals for natural radioactivity, including cosmogenic 7Be, and the decay products from soil exhalation of 220Rn (thoron). In addition, there have been frequent detections of anthropogenic nuclides, probably coming from three distinct facilities-a medical isotope production center, a major university hospital, and a particle accelerator laboratory--all between 1 and 2 km away from the monitoring station. This experience is discussed to sensitize health physicists to the potential uses of this publicly available information.
PubMed ID
11197459 View in PubMed
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34 records – page 1 of 4.