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Adequate iodine nutrition in Sweden: a cross-sectional national study of urinary iodine concentration in school-age children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92106
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;63(7):828-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Andersson M.
Berg G.
Eggertsen R.
Filipsson H.
Gramatkovski E.
Hansson M.
Hulthén L.
Milakovic M.
Nyström E.
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, Zürich CH-8092, Switzerland. maria.andersson@ilw.agrl.ethz.ch
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;63(7):828-34
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Cluster analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Goiter, Endemic - prevention & control
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Male
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Status
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sweden has a long-standing salt iodization program; however, its effects on iodine intake have never been monitored on a national level. The objective of this study was to evaluate iodine nutrition in the Swedish population by measuring the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a national sample of Swedish school-age (6-12 years of age) children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A stratified probability proportionate to size cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative national sample of school-age children from 30 clusters. Spot urine samples were collected for UIC analysis using a modified Sandell-Kolthoff method. RESULTS: The median UIC of the children (n=857) was 125 microg/l (range 11-757 microg/l). The proportion of children with a UIC 300 microg/l was 5.5 and 3.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine nutritional status of the Swedish population is adequate. Iodized table salt remains the main dietary source of iodine in Swedish diet. Recommendations to reduce total salt intake in the population urge increased use of iodized salt in the production of processed foods. Pregnant and lactating women with high iodine requirements may still be at risk for low iodine intake. This study will serve as the basis for future monitoring of iodine nutritional status in Sweden.
PubMed ID
18781164 View in PubMed
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Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71718
Source
Br J Nutr. 2002 Jan;87(1):61-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
Lone B Rasmussen
Lars Ovesen
Inge Bülow
Torben Jørgensen
Nils Knudsen
Peter Laurberg
Hans Pertild
Author Affiliation
Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark. lbr@fdir.dk
Source
Br J Nutr. 2002 Jan;87(1):61-9
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Denmark
Diet Records
Dietary Supplements
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Milk - chemistry
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomly selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h l excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than in Copenhagen for all expressions, and lower than recommended in both cities if I intake from supplements was not included. Milk was the most important I source, accounting for about 44% of the I intake, and milk (P
PubMed ID
11895314 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61751
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Apr;55(4):287-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
L B Rasmussen
L. Ovesen
I. Bülow
T. Jørgensen
N. Knudsen
P. Laurberg
H. Perrild
Author Affiliation
Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark. lbr@fdir.dk
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Apr;55(4):287-92
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Biological Markers
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet Records
Female
Fishes
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Middle Aged
Nutrition Assessment
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood
Sensitivity and specificity
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. DESIGN: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study of iodine intake and thyroid diseases in Denmark. Furthermore, the intake of fish determined from the FFQ was compared with the intake of fish from a simple record kept for 3 months. SUBJECTS: Women aged 25-30 y and 60-65 y. RESULTS: Median iodine intake was similar when determined from the FFQ and from dietary records and the correlation between these measures was 0.52 (P
Notes
Comment In: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 May;56(5):467-812001020
PubMed ID
11360133 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of urinary iodine excretion as a biomarker for intake of milk and dairy products in pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93876
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar;63(3):347-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2009
Author
Brantsaeter A L
Haugen M.
Julshamn K.
Alexander J.
Meltzer H M
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway. Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar;63(3):347-54
Date
Mar-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Biological Markers - urine
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products
Diet
Diet Records
Female
Fishes
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Linear Models
Milk
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Urinalysis
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk and dairy products are the main sources of iodine in the Norwegian diet. This is due to a high consumption of milk and dairy products combined with a relatively high concentration of iodine in milk because of mandatory iodine fortification of cow fodder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between 24-h urinary iodine excretion and estimated dietary intake, and to explore the use of 24-h urinary iodine excretion as a possible biomarker for the intake of milk and dairy products when assessing the validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women participating the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECT/METHODS: 119 women participated in a validation study. Iodine was analyzed in 24-h urine. Dietary intakes were estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 4-day weighed food diary (FD). Using linear regression, predictors of urinary iodine excretion were identified. The triangular method was applied to calculate validity coefficients. RESULTS: Significant predictors of 24-h urinary iodine excretion were: intake of dairy products, iodine-containing supplements and intake of fruit/vegetables. Fish/seafood intake and time of the year influenced 24-h urinary iodine excretion, although not significantly. The validity coefficients observed for total intake of dairy products were 0.65, 0.94 and 0.52 for the FFQ, the FD and the 24-h urinary iodine excretion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that 24-h urinary iodine excretion may be a useful biomarker for validating the intake of milk and dairy products in pregnant Norwegian women.
PubMed ID
18059417 View in PubMed
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[Excretion of iodine in the urine. A study from 6 different Norwegian districts in 1985].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235164
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1987 May 30;107(15):1320-1, 1317
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-30-1987
Author
H. Kapelrud
H. Frey
L. Theodorsen
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1987 May 30;107(15):1320-1, 1317
Date
May-30-1987
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Creatinine - urine
Female
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
PubMed ID
3603493 View in PubMed
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Exploration of biomarkers for total fish intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98999
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Margaretha Haugen
Yngvar Thomassen
Dag G Ellingsen
Trond A Ydersbond
Tor-Arne Hagve
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-04030 Oslo, Norway. anne.lise.brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arsenic - administration & dosage - blood
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Cohort Studies
Diet Records
Erythrocytes - chemistry
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - analysis
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Mercury - administration & dosage - blood
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Seafood - analysis
Selenium - administration & dosage - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
Notes
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
PubMed ID
19490733 View in PubMed
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Iodine. Do we need an enrichment program in Denmark?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61975
Source
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Sep;47(5):377-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
L B Rasmussen
G. Andersson
J. Haraldsdóttir
E. Kristiansen
K. Molsted
P. Laurberg
K. Overvad
H. Perrild
L. Ovesen
Author Affiliation
National Food Agency, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Søborg, Denmark.
Source
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996 Sep;47(5):377-81
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Beverages
Cattle
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Eggs
Female
Fishes
Food, Fortified
Goiter - classification - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Meat
Middle Aged
Milk
Nutritional Requirements
Abstract
A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9 and 13% in elderly women. Furthermore, a high occurrence of toxic goitre has been seen in the western part of Denmark. On the other hand, an increased or a high intake of iodine may lead to hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis. The working group concluded that an increase in iodine intake in the Danish population is needed and the best way to achieve this is to iodize all salt. To avoid side effects of a sudden large increase in iodine intake the initial amount of iodine in salt will only be 2 ppm.
PubMed ID
8889622 View in PubMed
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Mandatory iodine fortification of bread and salt increases iodine excretion in adults in Denmark - a 11-year follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265626
Source
Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;33(6):1033-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Lone B Rasmussen
Torben Jørgensen
Hans Perrild
Nils Knudsen
Anne Krejbjerg
Peter Laurberg
Inge B Pedersen
Lena Bjergved
Lars Ovesen
Source
Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;33(6):1033-40
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Bread
Cohort Studies
Creatinine - urine
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food, Fortified
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Requirements
Questionnaires
Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Young Adult
Abstract
Iodine fortification is widespread. Systematic monitoring of iodine fortification programs should be carried out to secure an optimal fortification level. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the Danish iodine fortification program by comparing iodine excretion at baseline and at 11-year follow-up, and to study determinants for any change in iodine intake including dietary habits, education, life style factors and health parameters.
A follow-up study based on the Danish DanThyr cohort examined in 1997-1998 just before iodine fortification was introduced, and reexamined in 2008-2010. In total, 2465 (59.1%) adult participants were reexamined.
Median (IQR) iodine concentration in urine had increased by 19 (-25-68) µg/L to 83 (47-133) µg/L. Estimated 24-h iodine excretion had increased by 36 (-21-95) µg/24-h to 134 (93-206), and calculated total iodine intake (diet plus supplements) had increased by 16 (-18-48) µg/day. Iodine excretion had increased significantly in all age and gender groups, but was still below the recommended amount at follow-up. The increase in iodine excretion was positively associated with changes in milk intake, with changes in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion.
The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working because the fortification led to increased urinary iodine excretion in (almost) all participants. However, the level of iodine fortification of salt is too low.
PubMed ID
24268678 View in PubMed
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Measuring iodine status in diverse populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267523
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 28;114(4):499-500
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-28-2015
Author
Kevin A Cockell
Source
Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 28;114(4):499-500
Date
Aug-28-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Female
Humans
Inuits
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Male
Notes
Comment On: Br J Nutr. 2015 May 14;113(9):1433-4025851046
PubMed ID
26227904 View in PubMed
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Thyroid hyperactivity with high thyroglobulin in serum despite sufficient iodine intake in chronic cold adaptation in an Arctic Inuit hunter population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128754
Source
Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Mar;166(3):433-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Stig Andersen
Kent Kleinschmidt
Bodil Hvingel
Peter Laurberg
Author Affiliation
Arctic Health Research Centre, Aalborg University Hospital, Hobrovej 42D, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark. stiga@dadlnet.dk
Source
Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Mar;166(3):433-40
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, physiological - physiology
Aged
Cold Temperature
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Greenland - ethnology
Humans
Hyperthyroidism - blood - ethnology - urine
Inuits - ethnology
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Thyroglobulin - biosynthesis - blood
Abstract
Adult man hosts brown adipose tissue with the capacity to consume energy and dissipate heat. This is essential for non-shivering thermogenesis and its activation depends on sympathetic activity and thyroid hormones. This led us to evaluate the impact of chronic cold exposure on thyroid activity and thyroid hormones in serum in Arctic residents.
Comparative, population-based study (n = 535) performed in Greenland.
Hunters were compared with other men, and Inuit in remote settlements in East Greenland with no modern housing facilities were compared with the residents of the capital city in West Greenland and residents of a major town in East Greenland in a cross-sectional study. We used interview-based questionnaires, measured TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), thyroglobulin (TG) antibody and TG (a measure of thyroid activity) in serum, and iodine and creatinine in spot urine samples.
Serum TG was the highest among hunters (P = 0.009) and settlement dwellers (P = 0.001), who were most markedly exposed to cold, even though they had the highest urinary iodine excretion (hunters, P
PubMed ID
22170797 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.