Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, Zürich CH-8092, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sweden has a long-standing salt iodization program; however, its effects on iodine intake have never been monitored on a national level. The objective of this study was to evaluate iodine nutrition in the Swedish population by measuring the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in a national sample of Swedish school-age (6-12 years of age) children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A stratified probability proportionate to size cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative national sample of school-age children from 30 clusters. Spot urine samples were collected for UIC analysis using a modified Sandell-Kolthoff method. RESULTS: The median UIC of the children (n=857) was 125 microg/l (range 11-757 microg/l). The proportion of children with a UIC 300 microg/l was 5.5 and 3.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine nutritional status of the Swedish population is adequate. Iodized table salt remains the main dietary source of iodine in Swedish diet. Recommendations to reduce total salt intake in the population urge increased use of iodized salt in the production of processed foods. Pregnant and lactating women with high iodine requirements may still be at risk for low iodine intake. This study will serve as the basis for future monitoring of iodine nutritional status in Sweden.
I deficiency diseases remain a health problem even in some developed countries. Therefore, measurement of I intake and knowledge about food choice related to I intake is important. We examined I intake in 4649 randomly selected participants from two cities in Denmark (Copenhagen and Aalborg) with an expected difference in I intake. I intake was assessed both by a food frequency questionnaire and by measuring I in casual urine samples. I excretion was expressed as a concentration and as estimated 24-h l excretion. Further, subgroups with low I intake were recognized. I intake was lower in Aalborg than in Copenhagen for all expressions, and lower than recommended in both cities if I intake from supplements was not included. Milk was the most important I source, accounting for about 44% of the I intake, and milk (P
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. DESIGN: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study of iodine intake and thyroid diseases in Denmark. Furthermore, the intake of fish determined from the FFQ was compared with the intake of fish from a simple record kept for 3 months. SUBJECTS: Women aged 25-30 y and 60-65 y. RESULTS: Median iodine intake was similar when determined from the FFQ and from dietary records and the correlation between these measures was 0.52 (P
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk and dairy products are the main sources of iodine in the Norwegian diet. This is due to a high consumption of milk and dairy products combined with a relatively high concentration of iodine in milk because of mandatory iodine fortification of cow fodder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between 24-h urinary iodine excretion and estimated dietary intake, and to explore the use of 24-h urinary iodine excretion as a possible biomarker for the intake of milk and dairy products when assessing the validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women participating the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECT/METHODS: 119 women participated in a validation study. Iodine was analyzed in 24-h urine. Dietary intakes were estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 4-day weighed food diary (FD). Using linear regression, predictors of urinary iodine excretion were identified. The triangular method was applied to calculate validity coefficients. RESULTS: Significant predictors of 24-h urinary iodine excretion were: intake of dairy products, iodine-containing supplements and intake of fruit/vegetables. Fish/seafood intake and time of the year influenced 24-h urinary iodine excretion, although not significantly. The validity coefficients observed for total intake of dairy products were 0.65, 0.94 and 0.52 for the FFQ, the FD and the 24-h urinary iodine excretion, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that 24-h urinary iodine excretion may be a useful biomarker for validating the intake of milk and dairy products in pregnant Norwegian women.
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9 and 13% in elderly women. Furthermore, a high occurrence of toxic goitre has been seen in the western part of Denmark. On the other hand, an increased or a high intake of iodine may lead to hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis. The working group concluded that an increase in iodine intake in the Danish population is needed and the best way to achieve this is to iodize all salt. To avoid side effects of a sudden large increase in iodine intake the initial amount of iodine in salt will only be 2 ppm.
Iodine fortification is widespread. Systematic monitoring of iodine fortification programs should be carried out to secure an optimal fortification level. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the Danish iodine fortification program by comparing iodine excretion at baseline and at 11-year follow-up, and to study determinants for any change in iodine intake including dietary habits, education, life style factors and health parameters.
A follow-up study based on the Danish DanThyr cohort examined in 1997-1998 just before iodine fortification was introduced, and reexamined in 2008-2010. In total, 2465 (59.1%) adult participants were reexamined.
Median (IQR) iodine concentration in urine had increased by 19 (-25-68) µg/L to 83 (47-133) µg/L. Estimated 24-h iodine excretion had increased by 36 (-21-95) µg/24-h to 134 (93-206), and calculated total iodine intake (diet plus supplements) had increased by 16 (-18-48) µg/day. Iodine excretion had increased significantly in all age and gender groups, but was still below the recommended amount at follow-up. The increase in iodine excretion was positively associated with changes in milk intake, with changes in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion.
The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working because the fortification led to increased urinary iodine excretion in (almost) all participants. However, the level of iodine fortification of salt is too low.
Adult man hosts brown adipose tissue with the capacity to consume energy and dissipate heat. This is essential for non-shivering thermogenesis and its activation depends on sympathetic activity and thyroid hormones. This led us to evaluate the impact of chronic cold exposure on thyroid activity and thyroid hormones in serum in Arctic residents.
Comparative, population-based study (n = 535) performed in Greenland.
Hunters were compared with other men, and Inuit in remote settlements in East Greenland with no modern housing facilities were compared with the residents of the capital city in West Greenland and residents of a major town in East Greenland in a cross-sectional study. We used interview-based questionnaires, measured TSH, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), thyroglobulin (TG) antibody and TG (a measure of thyroid activity) in serum, and iodine and creatinine in spot urine samples.
Serum TG was the highest among hunters (P = 0.009) and settlement dwellers (P = 0.001), who were most markedly exposed to cold, even though they had the highest urinary iodine excretion (hunters, P