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Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Sydney Rosen
Jonathon Simon
Jeffrey R Vincent
William MacLeod
Matthew Fox
Donald M Thea
Author Affiliation
Boston University School of Public Health's Center for International Health, USA.
Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - economics
Botswana - epidemiology
Commerce - economics
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Developing Countries - economics
Employer Health Costs
Employment
HIV Infections - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology
Humans
Internationality
Investments - economics
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services - economics
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
South Africa - epidemiology
Abstract
If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.
PubMed ID
12577655 View in PubMed
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[Cost-benefit calculations in laparoscopic surgery. Substantial total benefits, but extra expenses for hospitals are required--reversed effect].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220853
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 Jun 20;113(16):2007-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-20-1993
Author
T. Buanes
B A Sørensen
J O Stadaas
Author Affiliation
Gastroenterologisk avdeling Kirurgisk klinikk, Ullevål sykehus, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 Jun 20;113(16):2007-9
Date
Jun-20-1993
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Appendectomy - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Economics, Hospital
Humans
Investments - economics
Laparoscopy
Length of Stay - economics
Norway
Abstract
Based on data from our prospective comparative study, we calculated health care costs associated with cholecystectomy (n = 200) and appendectomy (n = 40) patients undergoing open and laparoscopic procedures respectively. Average costs associated with cholecystectomy were reduced from NOK 36,750 to NOK 14,050 (62% decrease) when the laparoscopic technique replaced the conventional open method. A similar comparative study focused on appendectomy was performed with 20 patients in each group, and the costs were reduced by altogether 56%. The potential for decrease in health care costs seems to be substantial, even though requiring investments in equipment and education. Mini-invasive surgery not only improves the quality of surgical treatment, but also increases the efficacy of health care investments.
PubMed ID
8322354 View in PubMed
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Cost-effectiveness analysis and capital costs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205783
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1998 May;46(9):1183-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1998
Author
G. Karlsson
M. Johannesson
Author Affiliation
Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1998 May;46(9):1183-91
Date
May-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Budgets
Capital Expenditures
Cost-Benefit Analysis - methods
Decision Making, Organizational
Decision Support Techniques
Health Care Costs
Humans
Investments - economics
Linear Models
Models, Econometric
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Sweden
Abstract
Traditionally, economic evaluations in terms of cost-effectiveness analysis are based, explicitly or implicitly, on the assumption of constant returns to scale. This assumption has been criticized in the literature and the role of cost-effectiveness as a tool for decision making has been questioned. In this paper we analyze the case of increasing returns to scale due to fixed capital costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis is regarded as a tool for estimating a cost function. To this cost function two types of decision rules can be applied, the budget approach and the constant price approach. It is shown that in the presence of fixed capital costs the application of these two decision rules to a specific patient group will give different results. The budget approach may lead to suboptimizations, while using the price as a decision rule will give optimal solutions. With fixed capital costs and when an investment can be used for treating several patient groups, these groups are no longer independent. Therefore the cost-effectiveness analysis has to be performed simultaneously for all patient groups that are potential users of the investment.
PubMed ID
9572608 View in PubMed
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Employer investments in employee health implications for the family as health producer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189212
Source
J Health Econ. 2002 Jul;21(4):563-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2002
Author
Kristian Bolin
Lena Jacobson
Björn Lindgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Lund University, Sweden. kristian.bolin@nek.lu.se
Source
J Health Econ. 2002 Jul;21(4):563-83
Date
Jul-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Efficiency, Organizational - economics
Employer Health Costs - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Family Health
Health Promotion - economics
Health services needs and demand
Health Services Research
Humans
Investments - economics - statistics & numerical data
Models, Econometric
Motivation
Occupational Health Services - economics
Public Assistance
Reimbursement, Incentive
Sweden
Taxes
Abstract
The model presented in this paper further extends the demand-for-health model in which the family is the producer of health investments, to consider the case in which an employer has incentives for investing in the health of a family member. The household and the employer are assumed to interact strategically in the production of health. The general insight provided is that the conditions which determine the nature of the relationship between the employer and the employee, for instance market conditions, production technologies, taxes, and government regulation, will also affect the allocation of health investments and health capital within the family.
PubMed ID
12146591 View in PubMed
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Genetic information and investment in human capital.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207926
Source
J Health Econ. 1997 Aug;16(4):435-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
H J Holm
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, School of Economics and Management, Lund University, Sweden.
Source
J Health Econ. 1997 Aug;16(4):435-52
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bayes Theorem
Employer Health Costs - statistics & numerical data
Employment - economics
Genetic Diseases, Inborn - diagnosis
Genetic Testing - economics - standards
Health Behavior
Humans
Information Services - economics - statistics & numerical data - supply & distribution
Investments - economics
Life Style
Models, Econometric
Sweden
Abstract
In a game of incomplete information we analyze the consequences of giving an employer access to imperfect genetic information about his employees. The employer chooses whether to invest in the employee and the employee chooses a life style. We derive the condition for markets of information services to exist and the conditions for when it is beneficial to the various parties. In one specification of the game, the mere introduction of the information service may change the employee's choice of health behavior, which means that the value of genetic information may be negative to the employer.
PubMed ID
10169100 View in PubMed
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The income and wealth packages of older women in cross-national perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90065
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009 May;64(3):402-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2009
Author
Gornick Janet C
Sierminska Eva
Smeeding Timothy M
Author Affiliation
The Graduate Center of the City University of New York and the Luxembourg Income Study, New York, NY 10016-4309, USA. jgornick@gc.cuny.edu
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009 May;64(3):402-14
Date
May-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Databases, Factual
Europe
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Investments - economics - statistics & numerical data
Ownership - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
United States
Women
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: We assess the income and wealth packages of older women's (age 65+ years) households and the extent to which low income is paired with low wealth, across a group of six high-income countries. METHODS: We use data on income and net worth from the Luxembourg Wealth Study, a new cross-national microdatabase. We define income poverty as having household income less than 50% of the national median and asset poverty as holding financial assets equivalent to less than 6 months of income at the poverty threshold. RESULTS: Older women typically have less income than do members of younger households at the national median, but their wealth holdings are generally much higher than their country's median wealth holdings. Older women's households in the United States report the highest net worth across these countries, in part because older American women have comparatively high rates of homeownership. However, American older women are also substantially more likely to be income poor. They also report high levels of asset poverty, as do women across all our comparison countries, with Sweden as a partial exception. DISCUSSION: Further research is needed to identify the most vulnerable subgroups, to integrate analyses of necessary expenditures, and to assess policy implications.
PubMed ID
19208754 View in PubMed
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Investments in social capital--implications of social interactions for the production of health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71353
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jun;56(12):2379-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Kristian Bolin
Björn Lindgren
Martin Lindström
Paul Nystedt
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 7082, SE-220 07, Lund, Sweden. kristian.bolin@nek.lu.se
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jun;56(12):2379-90
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Behavioral Research
Family Characteristics
Family Health
Female
Health Behavior
Health services needs and demand - economics - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Investments - economics - statistics & numerical data
Male
Marital status
Models, Econometric
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Salaries and Fringe Benefits - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
This paper develops a theoretical model of the family as producer of health- and social capital. There are both direct and indirect returns on the production and accumulation of health- and social capital. Direct returns (the consumption motives) result since health and social capital both enhance individual welfare per se. Indirect returns (the investment motives) result since health capital increases the amount of productive time, and social capital improves the efficiency of the production technology used for producing health capital. The main prediction of the theoretical model is that the amount of social capital is positively related to the level of health; individuals with high levels of social capital are healthier than individuals with lower levels of social capital, ceteris paribus. An empirical model is estimated, using a set of individual panel data from three different time periods in Sweden. We find that social capital is positively related to the level of health capital, which supports the theoretical model. Further, we find that the level of social capital (1) declines with age, (2) is lower for those married or cohabiting, and (3) is lower for men than for women.
PubMed ID
12742602 View in PubMed
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Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144186
Source
Am J Public Health. 2010 Jun;100(6):1029-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Arun V Mohan
Danny McCormick
Steffie Woolhandler
David U Himmelstein
J Wesley Boyd
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Source
Am J Public Health. 2010 Jun;100(6):1029-30
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Fast Foods - economics
Humans
Industry - economics - ethics - organization & administration
Insurance, Health - economics - organization & administration
Insurance, Life - economics
Investments - economics
Public Health - economics
Social Responsibility
United States
Abstract
Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.
Notes
Cites: Prev Med. 2002 Aug;35(2):107-1312200094
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2003 Sep;93(9):1404-812948952
Cites: Pediatrics. 2004 Jan;113(1 Pt 1):112-814702458
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2009 Jun 4;360(23):2483-419494232
Cites: Lancet. 2005 Jan 1-7;365(9453):36-4215639678
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2009 Mar;99(3):505-1019106421
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2004 Oct;27(3):211-715450633
PubMed ID
20395572 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.