The intraocular pressure reducing effect and side-effects of latanoprost, a phenyl-substituted prostaglandin analogue, were compared with those of timolol, in a group of 31 glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients, divided into three subgroups. The study was randomized and double masked. At the end of 6 month's treatment with latanoprost 0.005% once daily, either as a morning dose or as an evening dose, there was a reduction in intraocular pressure of 33% (p
OBJECTIVE: To determine the additive effect on aqueous humor flow of short-term dorzolamide treatment in patients with glaucoma receiving long-term treatment with timolol. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with glaucoma, 19 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, and 20 at the University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden, who had been receiving timolol treatment in both eyes for at least 1 year were studied. Aqueous flow was measured with fluorophotometry and intraocular pressure with tonometry. The effect of dorzolamide was compared with placebo when added to the long-term treatment regimen with timolol. RESULTS: Dorzolamide reduced aqueous humor flow by 24% +/- 11% (mean +/- SD). The intraocular pressure as compared with placebo in the US cohort was reduced by 10% +/- 6% and in the Swedish cohort by 18% +/- 9%. CONCLUSIONS: Dorzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, has additive effects as an ocular hypotensive agent with timolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, even though both drugs are suppressors of aqueous humor flow. Dorzolamide's effect on flow in these patients is the same as reported previously in normal subjects who are not taking a beta-adrenergic antagonist.
PURPOSE: To study the association between after-cataract and secondary glaucoma after lensectomy and 5-fluorouracil treatment in an experimental infant rabbit model. SETTING: St Erik Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS: Lensectomy was performed in both eyes of 16 3-week-old rabbits. One randomly selected eye in each rabbit was injected with 2.5 mg of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at surgery and 5.0 mg the day after surgery to reduce the formation of after-cataract. Axial length, corneal thickness, corneal diameter, and intraocular pressure were measured preoperatively and 4 times during the 6 months following surgery. Six months after surgery, the wet weight of the after-cataract was determined. RESULTS: In 16 aphakic eyes treated with 5-FU, no or a minimal amount (0.10 g); 8 of these developed glaucoma. The other 6 eyes had no or minimal after-cataract and did not develop secondary glaucoma. The relationship between after-cataract and secondary glaucoma was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: A significant relationship between the amount of after-cataract and the development of secondary glaucoma was found in aphakic infant rabbit eyes.
The effect of age on the number and morphology of optic nerve axons in adult Brown Norway rats (5-31 months old) (n=29) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By manually counting every axon in areas representing 60% of the optic nerve cross-section, we found a significant negative correlation between age and axon count (R(2)=0.18, P
The role of face-down posturing after macular hole (MH) surgery remains unclear and controversial. We evaluated the anatomical and visual outcomes of MH repair using a short duration (3 days) of prone positioning.
Prospective series of 50 consecutive eyes in 50 patients with Stage 2 or Stage 3 idiopathic MHs. All eyes underwent vitrectomy MH surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling and 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponade. The procedure was combined with phacoemulsification cataract surgery in phakic eyes. Surgical outcomes, MH closure rates, complications, and postoperative visual acuity were investigated.
Anatomical closure of MHs was achieved in 49 (98%) of 50 eyes by 1 surgery. Postoperative logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity decreased (i.e., improved) by 0.271 (95% confidence interval, 0.101-0.441 [P = 0.0024]). One complication of intraocular lens pupillary capture and one case of chronic cystoid macular edema were observed. There were no complications attributed to intraocular pressure fluctuations.
Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade with SF6 followed by short-duration 3-day face-down positioning is a successful surgical intervention for Stage 2 and Stage 3 idiopathic MHs. This method possessed minimal complications and offered significant improvement in visual acuity.
The aim was to investigate the impact of antihypertensive medication on the onset of glaucoma. Data from the complete Danish population between 40 and 95 years of age were used in the period from 1996 to 2012, covering >2.6 million individuals. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication and antihypertensive drugs. We first investigated basic correlations in the data and found that patients treated with antihypertensive medication, at any time during the study period, had a significantly higher overall relative risk (RR) of glaucoma, even when controlling for age and sex (with a RR of 1.31 and P
A retrospective analysis determined the association between intraocular pressure (IOP) control levels (mean and last IOP) and disease stability, and the association between IOP and yearly treatment cost in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).
Data were collected from POAG patients, referred to a tertiary glaucoma clinic. All IOP measurements, visual field mean deviation (VF) scores, physicians' impressions, and resources used (physician visits, procedures, and medications) were recorded and costed using standard resource unit cost lists from the Ministry of Health's perspective. Patients were categorized by the average VF score of their first three visits [mild ( or = 5 dB to or = 12 dB)]. Pearson's r quantified the association between IOP control levels and stability, where stability was defined by the physician's subjective impression of the patient's disease. Spearman's rho was determined to quantify association between mean IOP and yearly treatment cost within VF categories.
Four hundred and eleven charts were reviewed of which 265 were acceptable for analysis. A negative relationship was determined between the probability of reaching stability and mean IOP in all three VF severity groups. Pearson's r was -0.68 (p