The first genome-wide association study for BMI identified a polymorphism, rs7566605, 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) transcription start site, as the most significantly associated variant in children and adults. Subsequent studies, however, showed inconsistent association of this polymorphism with obesity traits. This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Hence, we investigated the association of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity- and lipid-related traits in Danish and Estonian children (930 boys and 1,073 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of pre- and early pubertal children. The association between the polymorphism and obesity traits was tested using additive and recessive models adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity and country. Interactions were tested by including the interaction terms in the model. Despite having sufficient power (98%) to detect the previously reported effect size for association with BMI, we did not find significant effects of rs7566605 on BMI (additive, P = 0.68; recessive, P = 0.24). Accordingly, the polymorphism was not associated with overweight (P = 0.87) or obesity (P = 0.34). We also did not find association with waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, or with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. There were no gender-specific (P = 0.55), age-group-specific (P = 0.63) or country-specific (P = 0.56) effects. There was also no evidence of interaction between genotype and physical activity (P = 0.95). Despite an adequately powered study, our findings suggest that rs7566605 is not associated with obesity-related traits and lipids in the EYHS.
The slit diaphragm is an adhesion and signalling protein complex linking the interdigitating podocyte foot processes in the kidney glomerulus, and mutations in slit diaphragm-associated genes result in severe proteinuria. Here we report a genetic association analysis of four slit diaphragm genes, LRRC7, KIRREL, NPHS2 and ACTN4, in a Finnish diabetic nephropathy cohort.
A total of 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1103 patients with type 1 diabetes. The patients were classified according to their renal status, and the genotype data were analysed in a cross-sectional case-control setting. To confirm positive associations, four SNPs were genotyped in 1,025 additional patients with type 1 diabetes.
No associations with diabetic nephropathy were observed for any of the analysed SNPs. The SNPs were not associated with the time from the onset of diabetes to the diagnosis of nephropathy or with glomerular filtration rate or AER as quantitative variables. In a sex-specific sub-analysis, the variants rs979972 and rs749701 in the first intron of ACTN4 were nominally associated with diabetic nephropathy in females, with odds ratios of 1.81 (95% CI 1.18-2.79, p = 0.007) and 1.93 (95% CI 1.26-2.96, p = 0.003) respectively.
Our study has not found any evidence that common variants in LRRC7, KIRREL, NPHS2 and ACTN4 contribute to susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Finnish patients with type 1 diabetes.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome influenced by oxidative stress. The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor Keap1 constitute an important defence system in cellular protection against oxidative stress. Here we hypothesize that common genetic variations in the genes NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding Nrf2 and Keap1, may influence the risk and phenotype of ALS. Five hundred and twenty-two Swedish patients with sporadic ALS (SALS) and 564 Swedish control subjects were studied. Eight tag SNPs in NFE2L2 and three tag SNPs in KEAP1 were genotyped by allelic discrimination and three functional NFE2L2 promoter SNPs were genotyped by sequencing. One NFE2L2 haplotype (GGGAC) was associated with decreased risk of SALS (OR = 0.62 per allele, p = 0.003) and one haplotype in KEAP1 (CGG) was associated with later SALS onset (+3.4 years per allele, p = 0.015). When stratified by subgroup, one haplotype in NFE2L2, GAGCAGA including three functional promoter SNPs associated with high Nrf2 protein expression, was associated with 4.0 years later disease onset per allele in subgroup ALS (p = 0.008). In conclusion, these results suggest that variations in NFE2L2 and KEAP1, encoding two central proteins in cellular oxidative stress defence, may influence SALS pathogenesis.
p14(ARF) tumor suppressor protein regulates p53 by interfering with mdm2-p53 interaction. p14(ARF) is activated in response to oncogenic stimuli but little is known of the responses of endogenous p14(ARF) to different types of cellular stress or DNA damage. Azidothymidine (AZT) is being tested in several clinical trials as an enhancer of anticancer chemotherapy. However, the knowledge of the relationship between AZT and cellular pathways, e.g. p53 pathway, is very limited. In this study, we show that AZT, cisplatin (CDDP) and docetaxel (DTX) all induce unique molecular responses in OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells carrying a mutated p53, while in A2780, ovarian carcinoma and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells with wild type p53, all of these drugs cause similar p53 responses. We found that endogenous p14(ARF) protein in OVCAR-3 cells is down-regulated by DTX but induced by AZT and a short CDDP pulse treatment. In HT-29 colon carcinoma cells with a mutated p53, all treatments down-regulated p14(ARF) protein. Both CDDP and AZT increased the expression of p14ARF mRNA in OVCAR-3 cells. Differences in cell death induced by these drugs did not explain the differences in protein and mRNA expressions. No increase in the level of either c-Myc or H-ras oncoproteins was seen in OVCAR-3 cells after AZT or CDDP-treatment. These results suggest that p14(ARF) can respond to DNA damage without oncogene activation in cell lines without functional p53.
Blau syndrome is a rare hereditary granulomatous disease presenting in patients of young age with exanthema, granulomatous arthritis and uveitis. Genetic analysis has shown an autosomal dominant inheritance and a number of specific mutations on chromosome 16q in codon 334, of which the most predominant are R334W and R334Q. Blau syndrome exists in Caucasian, Asian and Afro-American families, and de novo mutations have been reported. The estimated minimum incidence in Denmark is 0.05 per 100,000 person-years. Blau syndrome has pathological, clinical and therapeutic features in common with sarcoidosis but rarely involves the lungs or other parenchymatous organs. Discrimination between Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis should rely on chromosome analysis.
BACKGROUND: An association between mutations in a gene involved in bacterial recognition by monocytes, CARD15/NOD2 and Crohn disease (CD) has been reported in studies of adults and children. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CARD15 mutations in Swedish children with CD and analyze genotype-phenotype correlations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight children (62% boys) with CD diagnosed between 2.8 and 16.9 years (median 10.9 years), were reviewed. Histopathology, retrospective data collection and mutational analyses for the three main mutations R702W, G908R and 1007fs were independently performed. First-degree relatives were also genotyped. RESULTS: A CARD15 mutation was found in 8.6% (95% confidence interval, 2.9% to 19.0%), all of whom were heterozygotes, giving an overall allele frequency of 4.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.4-9.8). In 12%, all patients without mutations, a first-degree relative had CD. In four of five children, mutations were transferred from their healthy mothers. Granulomas at onset were found in 80% of patients with mutations and in 43% of those without (P = 0.17). No statistical association was found between mutation and phenotype regarding age at onset, anatomic location at onset or follow-up, severity of inflammation at onset, development of stenosis, perianal disease or extra intestinal manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of CARD15 mutation in this Swedish pediatric CD population is lower than reported in a mixed adult and pediatric population. The genotype-phenotype correlations were non-significant although a trend was found between the presence of mutations and granuloma formation. Healthy heterozygote mothers conveyed the mutation to their children with CD.
CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms are associated with Crohn's disease. There is a high concordance for disease and disease phenotype in monozygotic twin pairs with Crohn's disease.
We studied CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms in a Swedish, population-based cohort of monozygotic twins with Crohn's disease to assess whether these variants explain disease concordance.
Twenty-nine monozygotic twin pairs (concordant n=9, discordant n=20) with Crohn's disease and 192 healthy controls were investigated for the CARD15/NOD2 variants Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and Leu1007fsinsC.
CARD15/NOD2 mutations were found in 5/38 (13%) twins with Crohn's disease, corresponding to a total allele frequency of 6.6%. Only 2/9 concordant twin pairs carried any of the variants and the remaining seven were wild type genotype. The total allele frequency was 4.4 times higher (95% confidence interval 1.0-21.5, p=0.06) in concordant twins than in discordant ones, 11.1% versus 2.5%. In healthy controls the total allele frequency was 2.6%.
CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms contribute but do not alone explain concordance of Crohn's disease in monozygotic twins and, at least in a Swedish population, other polymorphisms are required. The low occurrence of CARD15/NOD2 mutations in the study and other Northern European populations suggests that these variants are of less importance in Northern Europe.
The association between the CCDC26 rs4295627 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the glioma risk has been studied previously, but these studies have yielded conflicting results. The aim of the present study is to analyze this association more vigorously, by means of a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was performed in databases PubMed and EMBASE. Six articles including 12 case-control studies in English with 11,368 controls and 5891 cases were eligible for the meta-analysis. We conducted subgroup analyses by the source of controls, ethnicity, and country. Our meta-analysis revealed that the rs4295627 SNP was associated with the glioma risk in a heterozygote model (TG versus TT: odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.45, P = 0.066). Moreover, our results suggested that the rs4295627 SNP was associated with a notably increased risk of glioma among Caucasians except for Swedes in 4 models (the homozygote model, recessive model, dominant model, and additive model). Nonetheless, in Sweden and China, the results showed no associations. No evidence of the publication bias was uncovered. Thus, our meta-analysis suggests that the rs4295627 SNP is associated with an increased risk of glioma. Additional studies are needed to derive more precise conclusion.
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder caused by environmental and genetic factors. Mutations in the CARD15 gene have been associated with CD. No previous case-control CARD15 study has been performed in the Swedish population.
The study comprised of 321 individuals: 178 with CD and 143 healthy controls (HCs), all from Stockholm County. All were genotyped for the three main CD-associated CARD15 variants (R702W, G908R and 1007fs) and phenotypic associations were investigated.
The allele frequencies of the R702W variant (4.5% CD versus 0.7% HC, p=0.008, OR = 6.8) and the G908R variant (2.0% CD versus 0% HC, p=0.045) were more common in CD patients than in controls. No significant difference in1007fs variant allele frequency was found between CD patients and controls (2.0% CD versus 1.7% HC, p = 0.8, OR = 1.1). Carriage of CARD15 variants was more common in the CD patients than in controls (15.2% CD versus 4.2% HC, p = 0.001, OR = 4.1, population attributable risk (PAR) = 11.4%). Genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that CARD15 variants were associated with ileal disease (p=0.0006, OR = 9.3, CI = 2.2-34) and protective for colonic CD (p = 0.01, OR = 0.18). An association between CARD15 variants and ileal CD (p=0.004, OR = 6.6) was confirmed by multivariate analyses.
The CARD15 variants R702W and G908R, but not 1007fs, are associated with susceptibility to CD in Stockholm County. Genotype-phenotype analysis shows an association with ileal CD. The contribution of these CARD15 mutations in Swedish CD patients overall is low in relation to studies elsewhere in Central Europe and North America, but is consistent with emerging data from elsewhere in Scandinavia and in Northern Europe.
Three variants in the caspase recruitment domain 15/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (CARD15/NOD2) gene have been shown to be associated with Crohn's disease (CD). There is a strong support for shared genetic determinants between various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In particular, linkage of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been reported on chromosome 16, encompassing the region containing the CARD15 gene. We therefore considered this gene as a good candidate for the T1D locus mapped to this region, and we tested the three CARD15 variants in the susceptibility to T1D in two independent settings: family based association analysis in Scandinavian multiplex families that we previously showed to be linked to this region, and case/control association study in a large cohort of French diabetic patients. We found no evidence for association of these variants with T1D overall, nor in subgroups of patients with or without the major risk genotypes at HLA-DRB1, at insulin (INS), or positive or negative for autoantibodies specific to other autoimmune diseases. Our results do not support a role for CD-associated CARD15 variants in the susceptibility to T1D, and suggest that another gene is responsible for the shared susceptibility between autoimmune and inflammatory diseases mapping to this region.