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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio related to visceral but not to subcutaneous adipose tissue in elderly Swedes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144309
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2010 Aug;211(2):656-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Charlotte Ebeling Barbier
Lars Lind
Håkan Ahlström
Anders Larsson
Lars Johansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden. Charlotte.Ebeling Barbier@radiol.uu.se
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2010 Aug;211(2):656-9
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - pathology
Aged
Apolipoprotein A-I - metabolism
Apolipoproteins B - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods
Male
Random Allocation
Regression Analysis
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Sweden
Abstract
To investigate whether the amount of visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) independently of the other can determine the apolipoprotein (apo)B/A-I ratio.
VAT and SAT areas were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 247 randomly selected 70-year-old men and women who did not use lipid-lowering drugs. Their adipose tissue areas were compared to their apoB and apo A-I levels and to their apoB/A-I ratios.
The VAT area and the gender were significantly related to the apoB/A-I ratio whereas the SAT area was not. There was a positive relationship between the VAT area and the apoB/A-I ratio.
A positive relationship was established between the amount of VAT and the apoB/A-I ratio, whereas there was no relationship between the amount of SAT and the apoB/A-I ratio. This observation supports the notion that VAT is metabolically active.
PubMed ID
20382384 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral adiposity in overweight and obese youth at risk of type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104988
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):804-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Rebecca C Mollard
Martin Sénéchal
Andrea C MacIntosh
Jacqueline Hay
Brandy A Wicklow
Kristy D M Wittmeier
Elizabeth A C Sellers
Heather J Dean
Lawrence Ryner
Lori Berard
Jonathan M McGavock
Author Affiliation
Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (RCM, MS, ACM, JH, BAW, KDMW, EACS, HJD, and JMM); the Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (KDMW); CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada (LR); and the Diabetes Research Group Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada (LB).
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr;99(4):804-12
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Body mass index
Carbonated Beverages - adverse effects
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Dietary Fiber - therapeutic use
Dietary Sucrose - adverse effects
Fatty Liver - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Obesity, Abdominal - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Overweight - diet therapy - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Abstract
Dietary determinants of hepatic steatosis, an important precursor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are undefined.
We explored the roles of sugar and fat intake as determinants of hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity in overweight adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
This was a cross-sectional study of dietary patterns and adipose tissue distribution in 74 overweight adolescents (aged: 15.4 ± 1.8 y; body mass index z score: 2.2 ± 0.4). Main outcome measures were hepatic steatosis (=5.5% fat:water) measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and visceral obesity (visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio =0.25) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Main exposure variables were dietary intake and habits assessed by the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire.
Hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity were evident in 43% and 44% of the sample, respectively. Fried food consumption was more common in adolescents with hepatic steatosis than in adolescents without hepatic steatosis (41% compared with 18%; P = 0.04). Total fat intake (ß = 0.51, P = 0.03) and the consumption of >35% of daily energy intake from fat (OR: 11.8; 95% CI: 1.6, 86.6; P = 0.02) were both positively associated with hepatic steatosis. Available carbohydrate (ß = 0.54, P = 0.02) and the frequent consumption of soda were positively associated with visceral obesity (OR: 6.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 34.0; P = 0.03). Daily fiber intake was associated with reduced odds of visceral obesity (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.98; P = 0.02) but not hepatic steatosis.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with a greater intake of fat and fried foods, whereas visceral obesity is associated with increased consumption of sugar and reduced consumption of fiber in overweight and obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.
PubMed ID
24522441 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evidence that the association between exercise intensity and insulin sensitivity is sex dependent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130471
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Oct;36(5):730-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Kaitlyn A Hougham
Robert Ross
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011 Oct;36(5):730-5
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - pathology
Adiposity
Adult
Energy Metabolism
Exercise
Female
Glucose Clamp Technique
Heart rate
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - metabolism - pathology - psychology - therapy
Ontario
Oxygen consumption
Patient Preference
Physical Exertion
Sex Characteristics
Waist Circumference
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if, after adjusting for the contribution of exercise dose, exercise intensity was associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Abdominally obese, sedentary men (n = 16, (mean ± SD) age 45.0 ± 7.5 years, waist circumference 108.6 ± 5.3 cm) and women (n = 18, (mean ± SD) age 42.3 ± 6.2 years, waist circumference 100.1 ± 8.2 cm) performed daily, supervised exercise for 3 and 4 months, respectively. Exercising at a self-selected exercise intensity, men were required to expend 700 kcal per session and women 500 kcal per session. Exercise intensity and dose were determined using heart rate and oxygen consumption data obtained from repeated graded exercise tests. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Insulin sensitivity improved in both men and women (change scores: men 7.2 ± 5.4 mg·(kg skeletal muscle (skm))(-1)·min(-1); women 5.8 ± 7.1 mg·(kg skm)(-1)·min(-1); p 0.05). Our findings suggest that exercise intensity is independently associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity in abdominally obese men but not women.
PubMed ID
21999295 View in PubMed
Less detail

Incidental physical activity and sedentary behavior are not associated with abdominal adipose tissue in inactive adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130852
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Mar;20(3):576-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
K Ashlee McGuire
Robert Ross
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Mar;20(3):576-82
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Energy intake
Female
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Obesity, Abdominal - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Waist Circumference
Abstract
The aim was to determine the association between objectively measured incidental physical activity (IPA) (i.e.,nonpurposeful activity accrued through activities of daily living) and sedentary behavior (SED) with abdominal obesity in a sample of inactive men and women. Participants were inactive, abdominally obese men (n = 42; waist circumference (WC) =102 cm) and women (n = 84; WC =88 cm) recruited from Kingston, Canada. Physical activity and SED were determined by accelerometry over 7 days and summarized as IPA (accelerometer counts per min (cpm) >100), light physical activity (LPA; cpm 100-1951), sporadic moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; cpm =1,952, accumulated in bouts 0.1). Similarly, LPA was not a significant predictor of abdominal obesity whereas sporadic MVPA was negatively associated with VAT (P
PubMed ID
21959343 View in PubMed
Less detail

Laser beam measurement of abdominal sagittal diameter in obese children: a validation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120446
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2013 Apr;8(2):112-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
C E Flodmark
W. Shen
M. Punyanitya
P. Leander
J. Lanke
A. Pietrobelli
Author Affiliation
Childhood Obesity Unit, Childhood Centre Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. carl-erik.flodmark@skane.se
Source
Pediatr Obes. 2013 Apr;8(2):112-7
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen - pathology
Analysis of Variance
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control
Child
Female
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Lasers
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Obesity, Abdominal - diagnosis
Puberty
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Spectrum Analysis - methods
Sweden
Abstract
Sagittal diameter (SAD) has been reported to correlate to visceral fat and cardiovascular risk factors. SAD is measured with the individual lying down, halfway between the lower rib margin and the iliac crest; it represents the mid-height of the abdomen. The aim of this study was to validate SAD measured using a recently-developed laser beam device (SAD(LDB) ) against SAD measured using MRI (SAD(MRI)).
Of 48 obese children (25 boys, 23 girls) aged 9-11 years on the waiting list for obesity treatment, 34 agreed to a baseline measurement, which was followed by repeated measurements 6 and 12 months later in 31 and 22 children respectively. MRI was used to examine SAD(MRI) at 5?cm above (SAD(MRI,cra) ) and below (SAD(MRI,cau)) the mid plane of the L4-5 intervertebral disc.
Each of the differences SAD(LBD) -?SAD(MRI, cau) and SAD(LBD)?-?SAD(MRI,cra) was subjected to a repeated-measurements ANOVA; the visit did not have a statistically significant effect in either case (p?=?0.19 and p?=?0.72, respectively). The difference SAD(LBD) -?SAD(MRI, cau) was 1.50 on average (p?
PubMed ID
23002010 View in PubMed
Less detail

The role of obesity, different fat compartments and sleep apnea severity in circulating leptin levels: the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120838
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jun;37(6):835-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
E S Arnardottir
G. Maislin
N. Jackson
R J Schwab
B. Benediktsdottir
K. Teff
S. Juliusson
A I Pack
T. Gislason
Author Affiliation
Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. ernasif@landspitali.is
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jun;37(6):835-42
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood
Body Composition
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Hypertension - blood - epidemiology - physiopathology
Iceland - epidemiology
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Leptin - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - blood - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Polysomnography
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Sleep Apnea Syndromes - blood - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Time Factors
Abstract
To assess whether sleep apnea severity has an independent relationship with leptin levels in blood after adjusting for different measures of obesity and whether the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and leptin levels differs depending on obesity level.
Cross-sectional study of 452 untreated OSA patients (377 males and 75 females), in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort (ISAC), age 54.3±10.6 (mean±s.d.), body mass index (BMI) 32.7±5.3?kg?m(-2) and apnea-hypopnea index 40.2±16.1 events per h. A sleep study and magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume were performed, as well as fasting serum morning leptin levels were measured.
Leptin levels were more highly correlated with BMI, total abdominal and subcutaneous fat volume than visceral fat volume per se. No relationship was found between sleep apnea severity and leptin levels, assessed within three BMI groups (BMI or =35?kg?m(-2)). In a multiple linear regression model, adjusted for gender, BMI explained 38.7% of the variance in leptin levels, gender explained 21.2% but OSA severity did not have a significant role and no interaction was found between OSA severity and BMI on leptin levels. However, hypertension had a significant effect on the interaction between OSA severity and obesity (P=0.04). In post-hoc analysis for nonhypertensive OSA subjects (n=249), the association between leptin levels and OSA severity explained a minor but significant variance (3.2%) in leptin levels. This relationship was greatest for nonobese nonhypertensive subjects (significant interaction with obesity level). No relationship of OSA severity and leptin levels was found for hypertensive subjects (n=199).
Obesity and gender are the dominant determinants of leptin levels. OSA severity is not related to leptin levels except to a minor degree in nonhypertensive nonobese OSA subjects.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22964793 View in PubMed
Less detail

Routine clinical measures of adiposity as predictors of visceral fat in adolescence: a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106107
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79896
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Katie Goodwin
Catriona Syme
Michal Abrahamowicz
Gabriel T Leonard
Louis Richer
Michel Perron
Suzanne Veillette
Daniel Gaudet
Tomas Paus
Zdenka Pausova
Author Affiliation
Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e79896
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology - pathology
Quebec - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sexual Maturation - physiology
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Visceral fat (VF) increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (waist), predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF) in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex.
VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,002 adolescents (482 males, age 12-18 years). Relationships of BMI and waist with VF and SF were tested in multivariable analyses, which adjusted for potentially confounding effects of age and height.
In both males and females, BMI and waist were highly correlated with VF and SF, and explained 55-76% of their total variance. When VF was adjusted for SF, however, BMI and waist explained, respectively, only 0% and 4% of VF variance in males, and 4% and 11% of VF variance in females. In contrast, when SF was adjusted for VF, BMI and waist explained, respectively, 36% and 21% of SF variance in males, and 48% and 23% of SF variance in females. These relationships were similar during early and late puberty.
During adolescence, routine clinical measures of adiposity predict well SF but not VF. This holds for both sexes and throughout puberty. Further longitudinal studies are required to assess how well these measures predict changes of VF and SF over time. Given the clinical importance of VF, development of cost-effective imaging techniques and/or robust biomarkers of VF accumulation that would be suitable in everyday clinical practice is warranted.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24244574 View in PubMed
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Single slice vs. volumetric MR assessment of visceral adipose tissue: reliability and validity among the overweight and obese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126394
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Oct;20(10):2124-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Greg Maislin
Murtuza M Ahmed
Nalaka Gooneratne
Matt Thorne-Fitzgerald
Christopher Kim
Karen Teff
Erna S Arnardottir
Bryndis Benediktsdottir
Hildur Einarsdottir
Sigurdur Juliusson
Allan I Pack
Thorarinn Gislason
Richard J Schwab
Author Affiliation
Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. fgm@mail.med.upenn.edu
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Oct;20(10):2124-32
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods
Male
Middle Aged
Neck
Obesity - epidemiology - pathology
Predictive value of tests
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sleep Apnea Syndromes - epidemiology - pathology
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. Total VAT volume of the abdominal compartment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold-standard measurement for VAT but is costly and time consuming. Prior studies suggest VAT area on a single slice MR image may serve as a surrogate for total VAT volume but it is unknown if this relationship is maintained in overweight and obese men and women. Untreated sleep apnea subjects enrolled into the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort (ISAC) underwent abdominal MRI. VAT area and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 interspaces and total VAT and SAT volumes were determined by manual examination using image analysis software; 539 men and 129 women with mean ages of 54.1 and 58.8 years and mean BMI of 32.2 kg/m(2) and 33.7 kg/m(2), respectively, were studied. Mean total VAT volume was 40% smaller and mean total SAT was 25% larger among females compared with males. The correlation with VAT volume was significantly larger for L2-L3 VAT area (r = 0.96) compared to L4-L5 VAT area (r = 0.83). The difference in correlation coefficients was statistically significant (nonparametric bootstrap P
Notes
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Comment In: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jan;21(1):6-723505164
PubMed ID
22395811 View in PubMed
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Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92914
Source
J Parasitol. 2008 Dec;94(6):1435-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Thomas J G
Pauli J N
Donadio E.
Buskirk S W
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA. jthoma30@uwyo.edu
Source
J Parasitol. 2008 Dec;94(6):1435-6
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Dioctophymatoidea - physiology
Enoplida Infections - epidemiology - physiopathology - veterinary
Female
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Male
Mesentery
Mustelidae - parasitology
Nutritional Status
Omentum
Prevalence
Sex Distribution
Stomach - parasitology
Stomach Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology - physiopathology - veterinary
Abstract
Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).
PubMed ID
18576861 View in PubMed
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