Antibiotic-associated infection with the bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a major cause of morbidity and increased health care costs. C difficile infection follows disruption of the indigenous gut microbiota by antibiotics. Antibiotics create an environment within the intestine that promotes C difficile spore germination, vegetative growth, and toxin production, leading to epithelial damage and colitis. Studies of patients with C difficile infection and animal models have shown that the indigenous microbiota can inhibit expansion and persistence of C difficile. Although the specific mechanisms of these processes are not known, they are likely to interfere with key aspects of the pathogen's physiology, including spore germination and competitive growth. Increasing our understanding of how the intestinal microbiota manage C difficile could lead to better means of controlling this important nosocomial pathogen.
The veterinary probiotic preparation was developed on the basis of aerobic part of bacterial strains of normal human intestinal microflora: 3 strains of Escherichia coli--G35No1-413, G35No2-412, G35No3-411, and one Enterococcus faecalis G35No4-410 strain. The influence of a pilot lot of the prepapration on the biochemical blood indices and the state of intestinal microflora of different age groups of young farm animal (calves and piglets) was studied during the process of the commission tests. It has been shown, that the developed probiotic promotes the improvement of protein and mineral metabolism, normalization of level of enzyme activities, which show state of the native immunity of the young farm animals' organism. It was the result of normalization of the intestinal microflora composition. The optimal doses and periods of intake have been determined. On the basis of executed researches the veterinary probiotic preparation has been presented for registration to the State Department of Veterinary Medicine of Ukraine.