Campylobacters are the most common bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in temperate countries. C. jejuni is the predominant cause of campylobacter IID, but the impact of other, less prevalent species has largely been ignored. Here, we present estimates of the burden of indigenously acquired foodborne disease (IFD) due to Campylobacter coli, the second most common cause of human campylobacteriosis.
Data from surveillance sources and specific epidemiologic studies were used to calculate the number of illnesses, presentations to general practice (GP), hospital admissions, hospital occupancy and deaths due to indigenous foodborne C. coli IID in England and Wales for the year 2000.
We estimate that in the year 2000, C. coli accounted for over 25,000 cases of IFD. This organism was responsible for more than 12,000 presentations to GP, 1000 hospital admissions, nearly 4000 bed days of hospital occupancy and 11 deaths. The cost to patients and the National Health Service was estimated at nearly pound 4 million.
Although C. coli comprises a minority of human campylobacter disease, its health burden is considerable and greater than previously thought. Targeted research on this organism is required for its successful control.
To study dynamics of qualitative and quantitative changes of microflora of large intestine in different age groups.
Stool samples from children of different age groups (0 - 6 months, 6 months - 1 year, 1 - 7 years, 7 - 14 years, >14 years) were tested on dysbiosis.
Majority of patients admitted during the period of 1999 - 2008 were children 1 - 7 years old (32 - 38%). The highest rate of dysbiosis was observed in infants (92 - 100%). Leading place in pathology of microbiota of large intestine during all study period belonged to Staphylococcus aureus and hemolytic Escherichia coli.
In Karachaevo-Cherkessk republic tightening of measures for surveillance on infection control regime in health-care organizations as well as on carriage of S. aureus in health-care workers are needed.
Information on the sanitary and epidemiological situation and water supply in the Republic of Ingushetia during the period before and after the emergency situation (high flood) is presented. The results of epidemiological observations on the territory of the Republic of Ingushetia for the period of June 22 to the end of the year 2002 indicate that no considerable rise in infectious morbidity, as well as outbreaks of natural focal infections, was noted. This suggests that, in spite of the complicated sanitary and epidemiological situation before the emergency situation (due to the vicinity of the conflict in the Chechen Republic, the intensive migration of the population and the presence of a large of refugees on the territory of the Republic of Ingushetia) and its sharp deterioration caused by the high flood, the timely realization of a complex of sanitary and prophylactic measures made it possible to avoid the wide spread of infectious diseases.
Intestinal spirochetosis in humans (HIS) is a condition defined by the presence of a layer of spirochetes attached by one cell end to the colorectal epithelium. The pathologic significance of HIS is uncertain, but it has been linked to chronic diarrhea and other abdominal complaints. Two anaerobic intestinal spirochete species have been associated with HIS, namely Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira aalborgi. Brachyspira pilosicoli, which colonizes many animal species, is common (approximately 30%) in the feces of people from developing countries, including Australian Aborigines, and in HIV+ patients and male homosexuals in Western societies. It is also commonly seen attached to the rectal mucosa of homosexual males. In other groups in Western societies both the presence of B. pilosicoli in feces and histologic HIS are uncommon (approximately 1.5%). Brachyspira aalborgi is an extremely slow growing and fastidious spirochete, which previously had been isolated from an HIS patient in Denmark. Recent studies using polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA from intestinal biopsies from a series of cases of HIS in the general Western population demonstrated that B. aalborgi, rather than B. pilosicoli, was the main spirochete species involved in these patients. This review outlines recent developments in the study of HIS and the two spirochete species, and identifies priorities for future research.
The state of microflora of the large intestine in 877 persons of different age groups in Kemerovo was studied. The study revealed that intestinal dysbacteriolysis of various degrees of severity was rather widely spread among the residents of the city. The main groups of risk, found to comprise young children, adolescents and people above 60 years of age, were established.
In a study of intestinal parasites in 697 Aboriginal children under the age of 6 years in South-west Australia, Giardia lamblia was recorded in 26% and Hymenolepis nana in 13.9%. G. lamblia infections occurred above 4 months of age, and H. nana infections above 18 months of age. There was a close correlation between infection with these two species (chi 2, P less than 0.001). Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant bacterial species recorded, was isolated in 2.3%, and was related to bowel symptoms in one child. G. lamblia was more prevalent in the country areas than in the Perth metropolitan area (chi 2, P less than 0.05. H. nana was more prevalent in children whose weight was below the third percentile (chi 2, P less than 0.02), and in those with diarrhoea (chi 2, P less than 0.01). There were strong correlations between low weight (below third percentile), a history of recent diarrhoea, and discharging ears.