The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III offers an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), including 25 pathological personality trait facets organized into 5 trait domains. To maintain continuity with the categorical PD diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated with the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders. We investigated whether the DSM-5 Section III facet-profiles would be associated with their respective Section II counterparts, as well as determining whether additional facets could augment the prediction of the Section II disorders. Results showed that, overall, the interview-rated DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with expected self-reported Section III traits. Results also supported the addition of facets not included in the proposed Section III PD criteria. These findings partly underscore the continuity between the Section II and III models of PDs and suggest how it may be enhanced; however, additional research is needed to further evaluate where continuity exists, where it does not exist, and how the traits system could be improved. (PsycINFO Database Record
To examine the reliability of the French Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-2.25) in Quebec in light of other DISC-2 studies conducted in the National Institute of Mental Health's Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study.
Reliability was assessed for DSM-III-R disorders in a community sample comprising 260 parents of youths aged 6 to 14 years and 145 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years. The DISC was completed at home. The mean test-retest interval was 13.8 days for parents and 12.8 days for adolescents.
Parents' reports: Internal consistency was acceptable for a majority of disorders. The kappa coefficients were in the fair or good ranges except for depressive disorders and were higher for children than for adolescents, and intraclass correlations were higher than kappa coefficients. Adolescents' reports: Internal consistency was acceptable or nearly acceptable for a majority of disorders. The kappa coefficients were in the fair range, and intraclass correlations were higher than kappa coefficients. The kappa coefficients were significantly higher for the test-retest interval of 7 to 14 days than for 14 to 21 days for adolescents' reports of anxious disorders and internalizing disorders.
The French DISC-2.25 shows acceptable internal consistency and fair to good test-retest reliability. Across DISC-2 studies, test-retest reliability of the parents' reports improved for anxiety and depressive disorders. Among sources of variation, studies on attributes of questions would be meaningful.
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of investigative interviews in England and Wales since implementation of the Memorandum of Good Practice (MOGP), which specified how forensic interviews of alleged child abuse victims should be conducted. METHOD: Transcripts of 119 videotaped interviews of alleged victims between the ages of 4 and 13 years were obtained from 13 collaborating police forces. Trained raters then classified the types of prompts used by the investigators to elicit substantive information from the children, and tabulated the number of forensically relevant details provided by the children in each response. RESULTS: Like their counterparts in the United States, Israel, and Sweden, forensic interviewers in England and Wales relied heavily on option-posing prompts, seldom using open-ended utterances to elicit information from the children. Nearly 40% of the information obtained was elicited using option-posing and suggestive prompts, which are known to elicit less reliable information than open-ended prompts do. CONCLUSION: Despite the clarity and specificity of the MOGP, its implementation appears to have had less effect on the practices of forensic interviewers in the field than was hoped. Further work should focus on ways of training interviewers to implement the superior practices endorsed by the MOGP and similar professional guidelines.
The objective of this study was to examine how the outcomes of a structured diagnostic interview for depression are related to the results of a self-report scale in alexithymic and nonalexithymic groups.
Subjects (N=389) recruited from primary care and psychiatric care completed the Depression Scale (DEPS) and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Major depression was diagnosed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short-Form by telephone.
In the group without major depression, the DEPS scores of the alexithymic subjects were significantly higher than those of the nonalexithymic subjects. In the group with major depression, the ideal cutoff points of the DEPS, assessed by receiver operating characteristic analyses, were essentially higher for the alexithymic patients.
Alexithymic subjects without major depression may be rated as depressive if the only criterion is the score on a self-report scale. Furthermore, alexithymic patients may require higher cutoff points in a self-report depression scale.
Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity analysis compared DISCO-10-algorithm diagnoses with clinical diagnoses and with Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R) algorithm diagnoses in 57 cases. Good-excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated in 40 cases of children and adults. The criterion validity was excellent when compared with clinical diagnoses and an investigator-based diagnostic interview. The DISCO-10 has good psychometric properties. Advantages over the ADI-R include valuable information of the broader autism phenotype and co-existing problems for clinical practice and research.
A quarter of the elderly population is prescribed benzodiazepines (BZD). This has led to growing concerns about drug dependence and the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dependence to a substance. This study aimed to understand how dependence was experienced by long-term BZD users. Interviews were conducted with 45 elderly persons who had been using BZDs for an average of nine years. These users' comments suggest six indicators of dependence: self-identifying as a dependent user, invoking multiple stressors to justify BZD use, using BZD to cope with anticipated stressors, trivializing the dangers of BZDs, keeping a supply in reserve, having previously tried and failed to stop, and reducing the dosage. Our results stress the need to take a more elaborate, person-centered view of dependence.
A Swedish version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was validated in 53 women, in comparison with an interview based on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS-Depression). The EPDS was then applied to 258 women on four occasions, first at 2 and 6 weeks and then at 3 and 8 months post partum. At 2 weeks the proportion of women with signs of depression was 26%, 8% at 6 weeks, 13% at 3 months and 8% at 8 months. An analysis of the 10 items in the EPDS was performed. The subjects felt the questionnaire to express their situation accurately and relevantly. It was also regarded as easy to complete.