BACKGROUND: When interviewing alleged victims of crime, it is important to obtain reports that are as accurate and complete as possible. This can be especially difficult when the alleged victims have intellectual disabilities (ID). This study explored how alleged victims with ID are interviewed by police officers in Sweden and how this may affect their ability to report information as accurately as possible. METHODS: Twelve interviews with 11 alleged victims were selected from a larger sample. The complainants were interviewed when their chronological ages ranged from 6.1 to 22 years. A quantitative analysis examined the type of questions asked and the numbers of words and details they elicited in response. RESULTS: Instead of open-ended questions, the interviewers relied heavily on focused questions, which are more likely to elicit inaccurate information. When given the opportunity, the witnesses were able to answer directive questions informatively. CONCLUSIONS: Interviewers need special skills in order to interview alleged victims who have ID. In addition to using more open-ended questions, interviewers should speak in shorter sentences.
In this study a simple interview method to identify patients with potential alcohol problems was tested in a clinical setting. Nurses interviewed an unbiased sample of 393 patients attending practices within occupational health care. The technique used was a day by day follow back procedure covering the preceding two weeks. The time needed to accomplish the interviews varied between 2 and 15 minutes, depending on how much alcohol consumption was reported. Nurses and doctors reported that the interview was easily integrated in daily working routines. When defining the limit of high consumption as more than 200 g absolute alcohol for the two week period, 11% of the group studied (17% among men and 2% among women) were regarded as high consumers. Strategies for confronting and motivating patients for further analysis of their alcohol habits and for treatment are discussed.
This article provides a case study of a Swedish neo-Nazi and the reintegration program being provided to him. During an extensive interview that took place over two days, he told a researcher that he was interested in having a violent adventure, and that he was drawn to Nazi symbols and history more than their creed. In comparison with ordinary crime, terrorist crime is quite rare, and access to detailed case studies is rarer still, making the development of a prospective risk-assessment instrument extremely difficult. Researchers' "thick descriptions" of their encounters with terrorists can help us to develop putative risk factors which can then be tested against controls. The article concludes by arguing that just as there is no single pathway into or out of terrorism, there can be no single reintegration program. A series of thick descriptions is a first step toward understanding what leads individuals into and out of terrorism.
Although depression is associated to physical discomfort, meanings of the body in depression are rarely addressed in clinical research. Drawing on the concept of the lived body, this study explores depression as an embodied phenomenon. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, the analysis of narrative-based interviews with 11 depressed adults discloses a thematic structure of an embodied process of an ambiguous striving against fading. Five subthemes elicit different dimensions of this process, interpreted as disabling or enabling: feeling estranged, feeling confined, feeling burdensome, sensing life and seeking belongingness. In relation to clinical practice, we suggest that the interdisciplinary team can focus on enhancing the enabling dimensions, for example through guided physical activities to support the patient to feel more alive, capable and connected. Moreover, we suggest that the treatment process benefits from an increased awareness of the ambiguity in the patient's struggle, acknowledging both destructive and recharging elements of the withdrawing, and the perceived conflict in-between.
In this article, we aim to contribute to the understanding of how people with mental illness experience hearing voices and sounds that others do not hear in daily life. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 people and analyzed the interviews using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The themes we arrived at included the following: hearing someone else or myself, am I losing my mind?, and daily life recurrently dominated by opposing voices. Our overall understanding of how the voices and sounds were experienced in daily life was that the intentions of others resounded intrusively in the participants and disrupted their lives. The tones and contents of these perplexing perceptions echoed and amplified past, present, and future experiences and concerns. The results elucidate the value that exploring and attempting to understand people's daily life experiences of hearing voices and sounds might have for the voice hearer, his or her family, and health care providers.
This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and the analysis of the data was both iterative and interpretive. Three key themes emerged. The first was how witnessing their loved ones' experience of illness and the threat of losing the recipient influenced the participants' decision to donate. The second focused on intrapersonal (philosophy of life) and interpersonal factors (comprehensive social support networks) that influenced the decision to be tested as a potential donor and the actual process of donation. The third was the impact of giving the gift of life, which was emotional and life changing. This article provides a rich description of the experiences of living kidney donors, revealing the multiple factors influencing the decision to donate, and provides insight on how social workers and other health care professionals need to identify and address the psychosocial needs of living kidney donors and their families from the process of decision making through after donation.