BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking, lifestyle, and weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WH ratio) is complex, and not fully understood. METHODS: In total, 6784 subjects (2408 daily smokers) were included in a population-based study (the Inter99 study) in Denmark. Weight, height, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Self-reported tobacco consumption and lifestyle variables (dietary quality, energy intake, physical activity in leisure time and alcohol consumption) were registered. RESULTS: Daily smokers had a significantly lower BMI and significantly higher WH ratio than never smokers (P
It is increasingly recognized that individual values, beliefs and behavior operate within a social context. There is growing consensus that local perceptions and indigenous knowledge should be important elements in the evaluation of programs aimed at improving health. Thus, an assessment of changes in health risk perception was included in the evaluation of a multi-component intervention project undertaken between 1996 and 1999 aimed at improving the health and well-being of residents in the inner city community of Cayo Hueso, in Centro Habana, Cuba. The community intervention involved a tremendous mobilization of government and non-governmental organizations, to promote social and cultural activities and address deficiencies in housing, water supply, waste disposal and street illumination. Prior to the interventions, 365 adults were surveyed regarding their perceived health risks regarding 41 health determinants, scored on four-point Likert scales ranging from 'without risk' to 'very risky'. A factor analysis of these data classified perception of risk into five areas: social environment, threats to personal health, lifestyle choices, environmental sanitation and housing conditions. The objective of the current analysis was to determine if there were changes in the level of perceived risk to health over the 5 years pre- versus post-intervention in Cayo Hueso, and if so, whether these changes were significantly different from changes seen during the same 5-year period in Colón, another community in Centro Habana not receiving focused interventions. During the first quarter of 2001, 1703 individuals living in 654 households in Cayo Hueso and Colón were interviewed in their homes using an enhanced version of the 1996 risk perception instrument. Ordinal logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender and years of education, were fit to assess change in health risk perception between 1996 and 2001. Significant declines in perceived health risk were found in both Cayo Hueso and Colón within all five domains, with significantly greater declines in many areas in Cayo Hueso compared with Colón, particularly with respect to housing-related health risks, indeed the main target of the intervention. Risk perception surveys are useful characterizations of widely held views in a target population. Our findings of decreased perceived health risk following public health, physical and social interventions to improve health suggests that this line of inquiry merits consideration in planning evaluations of multi-sectoral community-based health promotion interventions.
The aim of this note is to estimate the discount rates that individuals in the present generation in Sweden use to discount lives saved in future generations at different points in time. A binary survey question, where individuals choose between saving lives in their own generation versus saving lives in future generations, was administered in a general population sample of 850 individuals. Three time horizons of 20, 50 and 100 years were used in three different subsamples. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the discount rate. The estimated annual discount rate is 25% for the 20 year time horizon, 12% for the 50 year time horizon and 8% for the 100 year time horizon.
Primarily, this study aims to examine whether children attending sports schools are more active than their counterpart attending normal schools. Secondary, the study aims to examine if physical activity (PA) levels in specific domains differ across school types. Finally, potential modifications by status of overweight/obesity and poor cardio-respiratory fitness are examined.
Participants were from the first part of the CHAMPS-study DK, which included approximately 1200 children attending the 0th - 6th grade. At the sports schools, the mandatory physical education (PE) program was increased from 2 to 6 weekly lessons over a 3-year period. Children attending normal schools were offered the standard 2 PE lessons. PA was assessed at two different occasions with the GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer, once during winter in 2009/10 and once during summer/fall in 2010. Leisure time organized sports participation was quantified by SMS track. Based on baseline values in 2008, we generated a high-BMI and a low-cardio-respiratory fitness for age and sex group variable.
There were no significant differences in PA levels during total time, PE, or recess between children attending sports schools and normal schools, respectively. However, children, especially boys, attending sports schools were more active during school time than children attending normal schools (girls: ß=51, p=0.065; boys: ß=113, p
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The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities.
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Results from randomised trials regarding smoking cessation in hospitalised patients with COPD are few. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of smoking cessation groups (SCG) in patients with COPD admitted to hospital. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-three patients admitted to hospital were assigned to either a control group (n = 102) or an intervention group (n = 121) by matter of vacancy. The smokers in the intervention group were offered participation in an SCG. Smoking status and change in self-reported symptoms were assessed after 1 year. Smoking status was self-reported and verified with carbohemoglobin measurement. Survival and hospital admissions were assessed after 5 years through national registers. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients participated in an SCG. After 1 year, 36 (30%) patients in the intervention group were abstinent compared with 13 (13%) patients in the control group [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.83 (1.40-5.74)]. There was a significant difference between the intervention group and the control group regarding change in self-reported phlegm. There was a non-significant tendency towards better survival in the intervention group (50.4%) compared with the control group (43.1%). After 3 years, the intervention group had a significantly fewer total number of days admitted to hospital and number of days hospitalised with COPD. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an intervention consisting of offering participation in an SCG to chronic patients makes it possible to obtain higher abstinence rates. Furthermore, this intervention showed impact on phlegm, survival and hospital readmissions.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an educational program for preventive healthcare professionals in routine primary care on functional ability, nursing home admissions, and mortality in older adults. DESIGN: A prospective, controlled 3-year follow-up study (1999-2001) in primary care with randomization and intervention at the municipality level and outcomes measured at the individual level in two age cohorts. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Of 81 eligible municipalities in four counties, 34 agreed to participate. A total study population of 5,788 home-dwelling subjects aged 75 and 80 were asked to participate. Written consent was obtained from 4,060 persons (70.1%), of whom 2,104 were living in 17 intervention municipalities and 1,956 were living in 17 matched control municipalities. INTERVENTION: Intervention municipality visitors received ongoing education, and local general practitioners were introduced to a short geriatric assessment program early in the study period. Control municipalities visitors and general practitioners received no education. MEASUREMENTS: At the 3-year follow-up, the outcome measures of mortality and nursing home admissions were obtained from all, and the outcome measure of functional ability was obtained from 3,383 (95.6%) of 3,540 surviving participants. RESULTS: Education improved functional ability (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.42, P=.04) in intervention municipality participants, notably in the 80-year-olds. There were no differences in mortality (relative risk (RR)=1.06, 95% CI=0.87-1.28, P=.59) or rates of nursing home admissions after 3 years (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.50-1.09, P=.13). Subjects aged 80 benefited from accepting and receiving in-home assessment with regular follow-ups. CONCLUSION: A brief, feasible educational program for primary care professionals helps preserve older people's functional ability.
Comment In: Evid Based Nurs. 2005 Oct;8(4):12216247903
Comment In: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Apr;53(4):724-615817025
Patients with breast cancer experience unmet informational and psychosocial needs at the end of treatment. A brief psychoeducational intervention delivered at this transition may help to address some of the challenges these women face. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a single-session group psychoeducational intervention (GBOT group) compared with standard print material (usual care).
In this randomized controlled trial, 442 patients with breast cancer who were completing their adjuvant radiotherapy were recruited and randomized to receive either usual care, which includes standard print material (CRL group n = 226) or usual care and the GBOT group intervention (INT group n = 216). Participants completed measures at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months post-intervention.
The INT group showed significant improvement in their knowledge regarding the re-entry transition period (d = 0.31) and in their feelings of preparedness for re-entry (d = 0.37). There were no differences between the groups over time on health-related distress or mood.
Results support the effectiveness of providing a single-session group psychoeducational intervention as a first-step approach to supportive care for women at the end of breast cancer treatment.
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is frequently identified in children with respiratory tract infections, and its role in acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested. The disease associations for the closely related bocaviruses HBoV2-4 remain unknown. Increasing evidence shows that probiotics may reduce the risk of AOM of viral origin. Objectives of the study was to examine the prevalence and persistence of bocaviruses in consecutive nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) of otitis-prone children, and whether an association exists between HBoV and the child's characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and AOM pathogens, and whether probiotics reduce the occurrence of HBoV.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 6-month intervention study, 269 otitis-prone children (aged 9 months to 5.6 years), consumed daily either one capsule of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Bifidobacterium breve 99 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS) or placebo. After a clinical examination and NPS collected at three-time points, the presence and persistence of HBoV1-4 DNA in NPS was determined by RT-qPCR at the baseline, after 3, and 6 months.
A high load (>10,000 copies/ml) of HBoV DNA was detected in 26 (17.1%) of 152 children, and 16 (10.5%) showed a prolonged presence of HBoV for at least 3 months. None had DNA of HBoV2-4. Higher number of siblings associated with increased HBoV prevalence (p=0.029). Prevalence or persistence of HBoV was not significantly associated with other characteristics, respiratory symptoms, or AOM pathogens. Probiotic intervention significantly reduced the number of HBoV DNA-positive samples (probiotic vs. placebo: 6.4% vs. 19.0%, OR=0.25, CI 95%=0.07-0.94, p=0.039).
HBoV, but not HBoV2-4, DNA occurs often in the nasopharynx of otitis-prone children, and may persist for 3-6 months. Probiotic treatment possibly reduced the presence of HBoV.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether a cheap and less labour-intensive regional implementation strategy for guidelines was sufficient to change knowledge and behaviour among GPs. The model studied was the implementation of anticoagulant therapy to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation. METHOD: The intervention took place in the county of Viborg (149 GPs), Denmark, with the county of Ringkøbing (166 GPs) as control. A local interdisciplinary steering group modified national college-based guidelines, followed by a regional dissemination and implementation strategy. The effect of the intervention was evaluated during a follow-up period by a repeated questionnaire and by monitoring prescriptions for oral anticoagulants in 1993 and 1995 in the Danish National Health Service. RESULTS: Adherence to the guidelines was higher after the intervention but, considering secular trends and baseline differences, the guidelines had no significant effect. The use of oral anticoagulants increased substantially in both counties during the 2-year follow-up period, but the difference in relative change between the counties was negligible. Adherence to the guidelines could not be predicted by any of the reported practice characteristics or attitudes to guidelines. CONCLUSION: Despite solid scientific documentation and regional modification to establish ownership of nationally agreed guidelines, the impact of guidelines on GPs' knowledge and behaviour was disappointing.