Part of the Arctic Council, the SDWG created the AHHEG to assist it in identifying Arctic human health issues and priorities, coordinating SDWG Arctic human health projects and activities, identifying possible new projects and activities, and cooperating with other working groups on Arctic human health issues.
The Social Anxiety and Phobia Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Harter's (1982) Perceived Competence Scale for Children (PCSC), as well as an inventory of cost and likelihood appraisal of negative social and non-social events, were filled in by 184 adolescents (14-15 years old). It was expected that social anxiety would be specifically related to low perceived competence in the social domain and threat appraisal in the same domain, whereas depression would be related to more general perceived competence deficits. The relationships of social anxiety and depression to perceived competence and appraisal were largely supported. Social anxiety was most strongly related to perceived social competence as well as to both social cost and likelihood appraisals, whereas depression was more generally related to perceived competence, and appraisal of negative events did not improve the prediction of depression any more than the prediction based on perceived competence.
An interactive face-to-face setting is used to study natural infant directed speech (IDS) compared to adult directed speech (ADS). With distinctive vowel quantity and vowel quality, Norwegian IDS was used in a natural quasi-experimental design. Six Norwegian mothers were recorded over a period of 6 months alone with their infants and in an adult conversation. Vowel duration and spectral attributes of the vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/, and their short counterparts /a/ /i/ and /u/ were analysed. Repeated measures analyses show that effects of vowel quantity did not differ between ADS and IDS, and for back vowel qualities, the vowel space was shifted upwards in IDS compared to ADS suggesting that fronted articulations in natural IDS may visually enhance speech to infants.
In this qualitative study the authors examine the Scriptural images that 10 Lutheran pastors employed in describing the ethical challenges in the pastor-congregant relationship. The analysis of Scriptural images is part of a larger study on pastors' experiences of a mandatory workshop, "Crossing the Boundaries (CTB),"which is required of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) seminarians. The pastors' images were analyzed from the four perspectives of depth psychology, theology, social ethics, and sociology. In commenting on tensions in the pastors' Scriptural images the authors note commonalities among the four theoretical perspectives and discuss implications for practice and future research.