To study abortion training in Canadian obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residency programs.
An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all postgraduate year (PGY)-4 and PGY-5 ob-gyn residents (n=130) and residency program directors (n=16) in Canada. The questionnaires inquired about demographic information, details of abortion training, resident participation in training, and intention to provide abortions after residency.
Ninety-two of 130 residents (71%) and 15 of 16 program directors (94%) responded. Abortion training is considered routine in approximately half of programs and elective in half. The majority of residents (71%) participated in abortion training, and half plan to do elective abortions after residency. More than half of residents felt competent after training to perform first-trimester aspiration and second-trimester inductions but did not feel competent in first-trimester medical abortions or dilation and evacuation (D&E). Residents were more likely to participate in training if the program arranged the training for residents (P=.04) and were more likely to intend to provide abortions if the training was considered routine (P=.02), while controlling for all significant demographic and training variables.
Most Canadian ob-gyn programs offer some training in elective abortion, but only half include it routinely in training, and the minority of residents feels competent in D&E and medical abortion. Integrated abortion training was associated with greater resident participation in training and increased likelihood of intention to provide abortions after residency.
To study how prescription patterns concerning respiratory tract infections differ between interns, residents, younger general practitioners (GPs), older GPs and locums.
Retrospective study of structured data from electronic patient records.
Data were obtained from 53 health centres and 3 out-of-hours units in Jönköping County, Sweden, through their common electronic medical record database.
All physicians working in primary care during the 2-year study period (1 November 2010 to 31 October 2012).
Physicians' adherence to current guidelines for respiratory tract infections regarding the use of antibiotics.
We found considerable differences in prescribing patterns between physician categories. The recommended antibiotic, phenoxymethylpenicillin, was more often prescribed by interns, residents and younger GPs, while older GPs and locums to a higher degree prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. The greatest differences were seen when the recommendation in guidelines was to refrain from antibiotics, as for acute bronchitis. Interns and residents most often followed guidelines, while compliance in descending order was: young GPs, older GPs and locums. We also noticed that male doctors were somewhat overall more restrictive with antibiotics than female doctors.
In general, primary care doctors followed national guidelines on choice of antibiotics when treating respiratory tract infections in children but to a lesser degree when treating adults. Refraining from antibiotics seems harder. Adherence to national guidelines could be improved, especially for acute bronchitis and pneumonia. This was especially true for older GPs and locums whose prescription patterns were distant from the prevailing guidelines.
We determine success rates of endotracheal intubation performed in emergency departments (EDs) by North American emergency medicine residents.
During 58 months, physicians performing intubations at 31 university-affiliated EDs in 3 nations completed a data form that was entered into the National Emergency Airway Registry 2 database. Included were all patients undergoing endotracheal intubation in the ED. The data form included patients' age, sex, weight, indication for intubation, technique of airway management, names and dosages of all medications used to facilitate intubation, level of training and specialty of the intubator, number of attempts, success or failure, and adverse events. We queried this prospectively gathered, observational data to analyze intubations done by US and Canadian emergency medicine residents.
Enrollment was incomplete (eg, 85% at the main study center), so the study sample did not include all consecutive patients. Emergency medicine residents performed 77% (5768/7498; 95% confidence interval [CI] 76% to 78%) of all initial intubation attempts in the United States and Canada. The first intubator was successful in 90% (5,193/5,757; 95% CI 89% to 91%) of cases, including 83% (4,775/5,757; 95% CI 82% to 84%) on the first attempt. Success rates on the first attempt were as follows: postgraduate year 1 = 72% (498/692; 95% CI 68% to 75%), postgraduate year 2 = 82% (2,081/2,544; 95% CI 80% to 83%), postgraduate year 3 = 88% (1,963/2,238; 95% CI 86% to 89%), postgraduate year 4+ = 82% (233/283; 95% CI 77% to 87%), and attending physician = 89% (689/772; 95% CI 87% to 91%). Success rates by the first intubator were as follows: postgraduate year 1 = 80% (553/692; 95% CI 77% to 83%), postgraduate year 2 = 89% (2,272/2,544; 95% CI 88% to 90%), postgraduate year 3 = 94% (2,105/2,238; 95% CI 93% to 95%), postgraduate year 4+ = 93% (263/283; 95% CI 89% to 96%), and attending physician = 98% (755/772; 95% CI 96% to 99%). Rapid sequence intubation technique was used in 78% (4,513/5,768; 95% CI 77% to 79%) of initial attempts: it resulted in 85% (3,843/4,513; 95% CI 84% to 86%) success on the first attempt and 91% (4,117/4,513; 95% CI 90% to 92%) success by the first intubator. The overall rate of cricothyrotomy for all emergency resident intubations was 0.9% (50/5,757; 95% CI 0.6% to 1.1%). When an initial intubator failed, 40% (385/954; 95% CI 37% to 44%) of rescue attempts were performed by emergency medicine residents. Among emergency medicine residents, success on the first rescue attempt was 80% (297/371; 95% CI 76% to 84%), and success by the first rescue intubator was 88% (328/371; 95% CI 85% to 91%).
Success of initial intubation attempts increased over the first 3 years of residency. This large multicenter study demonstrates the success of airway management by emergency medicine residents in North America. Using rapid-sequence intubation predominantly, emergency medicine residents achieved high levels of success.
To assess stress in medical students, residents, and graduate science students at four Canadian schools of medicine.
Four schools with different curricula in three different parts of Canada participated in the study: the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine, the University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine, the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine, and the McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences. All the medical students, residents, and graduate science students at each school were surveyed in 1994-95. The three instruments used were the University of Calgary Stress Questionnaire, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), and the Symptom Checklist-90. Demographic data were compared across all four schools. Analysis of variance was calculated for all test-item scores, utilizing a four (school) by three (program) by two (gender) design, which were all between subject factors. Significant main effects were followed up by using planned comparisons (Newman-Keuls, with a probability level of p
To compare the demographic and educational characteristics of Canadian international medical graduates (IMGs) and immigrant IMGs who applied to the second iteration of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) match in 2002.
Web-based questionnaire survey.
The study was conducted during the second-iteration CaRMS match in Canada.
The sampling frame included the entire population of IMG registrants for the 2002 CaRMS match in Canada who expressed interest in applying for a ministry-funded residency position in the 13 English-speaking Canadian medical schools. Those who immigrated to Canada with medical degrees were categorized as immigrant IMGs. Canadian citizens and landed immigrants or permanent residents who left Canada to obtain a medical degree in another country were defined as Canadian IMGs.
Demographic characteristics, education and training outside Canada, examinations taken, previous applications for a residency position, preferred type of practice, and barriers and supports were compared.
Out of 446 respondents who indicated their immigration status and education, 396 (88.8%) were immigrant IMGs and 50 (11.2%) were Canadian IMGs. Immigrant IMGs tended to be older, be married, and have dependent children. Immigrant IMGs most frequently obtained their medical education in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, or Africa, whereas Canadian IMGs most frequently obtained their medical degrees in Asia, the Caribbean, or Europe. Immigrant IMGs tended to have more years of postgraduate training and clinical experience. A significantly greater proportion of immigrant IMGs had perceived that there were insufficient opportunities for assessment, financial barriers to training, and licensing barriers to practice. Nearly half (45.5%) of all IMGs selected family medicine as their first choice of clinical discipline to practise in Canada. There were no significant differences between Canadian and immigrant IMGs in terms of first choice of clinical discipline (family medicine vs specialty). There were no significant differences between the groups in the number of times they applied to CaRMS in the past, but a relatively greater proportion of Canadian IMGs obtained residency positions.
There are notable similarities and some significant differences between Canadian and immigrant IMGs seeking to practise medicine in Canada.
In the last few years, the Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery has become increasingly concerned that the number of applicants to vascular surgery residencies has remained stable, while the number of available positions has increased substantially and quality of applicants has diminished. What factors are relevant for residents and medical students whether they do or do not choose vascular surgery as a specialty? In this article, we cite specific reasons that played key roles in this decision-making process, based on various surveys and reports addressing this issue. Technical aspects of vascular surgery, the role of mentors, and lifestyle issues were shown to be critical factors in the choice of potential trainees. Different training paradigms were also shown to be favored by residents and students, depending on their level of training. The findings in these surveys have helped vascular surgery program directors devise new and innovative training paradigms and to develop strategies to attract future trainees.
To identify factors that help predict success for international medical graduates (IMGs) who train in Canadian residency programs and pass the Canadian certification examinations.
A retrospective analysis of 58 variables in the files of IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec between 2000 and 2008.
Eight hundred ten IMGs who applied to the Collège des médecins du Québec through either the "equivalency pathway" (ie, starting training at a residency level) or the "clerkship pathway" (ie, relearning at the level of a medical student in the last 2 years of the MD diploma).
Success factors in achieving certification. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA (analysis of variance).
International medical graduates who chose the "clerkship pathway" had greater success on certification examinations than those who started at the residency level did.
There are several factors that influence IMGs' success on certification examinations, including integration issues, the acquisition of clinical decision-making skills, and the varied educational backgrounds. These factors perhaps can be better addressed by a regular clerkship pathway, in which IMGs benefit from learner-centred teaching and have more time for reflection on and understanding of the North American approach to medical education. The clerkship pathway is a useful strategy for assuring the integration of IMGs in the North American health care system. A 2-year relearning period in medical school at a clinical clerkship level deserves careful consideration.
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