Recruitment and retention of qualified nursing staff are vital to safe patient care and require the expertise of clinical educators to facilitate the nurses' professional development. However, organizational redesign has challenged clinical educators with role ambiguity, job stress, and decreased job satisfaction. This study used Kanter's Structural Theory of Organizational Behavior to examine the relationships between clinical educators' perceptions of empowerment, job tension, and job satisfaction. High levels of workplace empowerment were significantly related to low levels of job tension. In addition, the combination of high levels of empowerment and low levels of job tension was predictive of high levels of job satisfaction. Implications for staff development administrators are discussed.
A statistical model of dietetic intern selection was developed from a profile of selection criteria that was obtained in a 1988 survey of Canadian graduate dietetic internship directors. The model was composed of four clusters of variables that resulted from the most frequently used selection criteria: academic performance, work experience, communication skills, and extracurricular activities. Data from a convenience sample of 39 dietetic intern applicants were analyzed, using principal components analysis and discriminant analysis, to test the model's power to predict success in obtaining an internship appointment. In descending order, the criteria with the greatest predictive powers were: academic performance; extracurricular activities; and supervisory, teaching, or instructing types of work experience. The model accounted for 41% of the differences between those who were successful and those who were not successful in obtaining internship appointments in 1989 and correctly classified 30 of 39 subjects. These results provide baseline data on the predictive power of some criteria used for selecting dietetic interns. These findings suggest the need for a replication study with a randomized national sample to crossvalidate the results obtained in this exploratory research.
We examined the demographic characteristics of applicants who applied and were unsuccessful in securing an internship position, what these applicants did afterward in their efforts to obtain an internship position, and which career paths they pursued. We also searched for any differences in eligibility between applicants who had not obtained an internship position and those who eventually were successful.
A 68-item online survey was administered.
The study sample (n=84) was relatively homogeneous: female (99%), heterosexual (98%), Caucasian (70%), Canadian-born (75%), having English as a first language (73%), multilingual (40%), and having completed a previous degree (29%). Mean self-reported cumulative grade point average (3.35) exceeded the minimum (3.0) required by most Ontario internship programs. Over 25% eventually secured an internship position. Applicants who rated their packages strong in community nutrition were less successful in attaining an internship. Little difference in qualification was found between those who were eventually successful and not-yet-successful applicants.
Unsuccessful applicants met academic and other requirements for admission to dietetic internship programs in Ontario. Insufficient training opportunities, costs associated with internship, and competition may be contributing to a loss of human potential in dietetics.
To report statistical information about pharmacy postgraduate experiential training programs in the US and Canada.
A questionnaire is mailed annually to the contact listed for each residency or fellowship in the RESFILE database. The data for this report were entered into the database between June and December 1994. The information obtained on the survey includes (1) program type and accreditation status, (2) primary focus of the program, (3) number of positions, (4) stipend, (5) availability to BS graduates.
Six hundred sixty-eight programs are listed in the RESFILE database, including 540 residences (70% accredited and 30% nonaccredited) and 128 fellowships. Fifty programs are located in Canada. There are a total of 1070 positions available, with a mean of 1.6 positions per program. Pharmacy practice residencies constitute 55% of accredited residencies in the US. General hospital residencies account for 88% of Canadian programs. Primary/ambulatory care residencies are the most common specialty focus. Infectious disease is the most common fellowship focus. The mean stipend for all programs is $24,837. Overall, at least 90% of the responding programs offer specified benefits. Forty-eight percent of the residency programs are available to BS graduates; most fellowships are not. Having completed a previous generalist residency is frequently preferred but often is not required to perform a specialty residency or fellowship.
The statistical data in this report will be useful to those assessing the role of postgraduate experiential training, institutions in the process of developing a residency or fellowship, and those considering application to enter such programs.