In Norway, the largest reported quantities of radioactive discharges and radioactive waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) come from the oil and gas sector, and smaller quantities of other NORM waste are also produced by industrial or mining processes. The Gulen final repository for radioactive waste from the oil and gas industry from the Norwegian continental shelf was opened in 2008 and has a capacity of 6000 tonnes. As of 1 January 2011, a new regulation was enforced whereby radioactive waste and radioactive pollution was integrated in the Pollution Control Act from 1981. This means that radioactive waste and radioactive pollution are now regulated under the same legal framework as all other pollutants and hazardous wastes. The regulation establishes two sets of criteria defining radioactive waste: a lower value for when waste is considered to be radioactive waste, and a higher value, in most cases, for when this waste must be disposed of in a final waste repository. For example, waste containing = 1 Bq/g of Ra-226 is defined as radioactive waste, while radioactive waste containing = 10 Bq/g of Ra-226 must be disposed of in a final repository. Radioactive waste between 1 and 10B q/g can be handled and disposed of by waste companies who have a licence for handling hazardous waste according to the Pollution Control Act. Alternatively, they will need a separate licence for handling radioactive waste from the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The goal of the new regulation is that all radioactive waste should be handled and stored in a safe manner, and discharges should be controlled through a licensing regime in order to avoid/not pose unnecessary risk to humans or the environment. This paper will elaborate on the new regulation of radioactive waste and the principles of NORM management in Norway in view of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's 2007 Recommendations.
Lars O. Kallings retired Summer, 1993, as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS' (GPA) Senior Advisor on scientific an policy affairs after joining GPA in 1990 while on leave of absence as Scientific Advisor to the Swedish government. Becoming involved with AIDS in 1982, he had no idea that the pandemic would grow to the level attained by 1993. WHO held its first meeting on AIDS near the end of 1983 and Professor Kallings was called upon to advise the Division of Communicable Diseases from 1984. He discusses the retroviral nature of HIV as the main scientific problem associated with AIDS. Kallings then responds to questions on policy problems, components of a successful AIDS program, whether the world has responded appropriately to AIDS over the past 12 years, whether he sees a light at the end of the tunnel, vaccine development, his views on GPA successes, and observations on the program. The interview ends with Kallings declaring his intention to remain involved with AIDS once returning to Sweden.
Our objective was to examine the characteristics of international travelers from Canada who have been arrested or detained while abroad, and to review the health implications of incarceration.
An EpiInfo 6 program was created to analyse all of the Consular reports received in 1995 via the Secure Integrated Global Network (SIGNET) which provides communications and computerization services to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Canada. The Consular Management and Operations System was designed to support the delivery of consular services by the Department, and to link Headquarters in Ottawa with missions in other countries through case management files, including a "Prisoners" file. Information obtained included personal demographics (age, gender), date, country, and reason for arrest or detention, and outcome of judicial process.
There were 1, 086 arrest or detention reports received from Consular services via SIGNET in 1995. Males outnumbered females 5.6:1. Most individuals arrested were young: 57.5% were less than 40 years, and 79% were less than 50 years. Drug related charges were cited in 33.1% of all cases, with 52.8% of arrested females charged with drug related offenses. The documented conviction rate was 96%. The majority of detained Canadian travelers were held in countries within the Americas (791 cases - 69.2%), with 642 (59.1%) being detained in the USA.
Arrest and detention is an unusual occurrence for international travelers but relative youth, male gender, and female drug couriers were identifiable risk characteristics. Public awareness campaigns can be targeted to specific population demographics, but all international travelers need to be counseled on the consequences of transgressing laws in foreign countries.
In September 2000, a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel published its findings in the dispute between Canada and the European Union/France over France's ban on the import and use of chrysotile (white asbestos). The panel upheld the French ban, established that the use of chrysotile is a health risk and the idea of "controlled use" a fallacy, and used (for the first time) an exception clause in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that permits trade-restrictive measures to protect human life or health. At the same time, the panel concluded that the French ban violated international trade laws by treating chrysotile products less favorably than domestically produced alternatives. Some WTO watchers believe that with asbestos as the precedent for bans on toxic substances, the regulation of other, much less well-established, toxic exposures could prove much more difficult. Now the French ban has been upheld, chrysotile producers will increasingly target developing countries. Canada is appealing the WTO decision.