In previous studies, internal locus of control (ILC) has been pointed out as a key factor for return to work after vocational rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to gain a deeper understanding of the concept of ILC in a Swedish vocational rehabilitation context. The study was based on data from 347 long-term sick-listed clients collected at the onset of vocational rehabilitation. A first bi-variate analysis showed that ILC was positively associated with physical functioning and general health, and negatively associated with bodily pain. The analysis also showed that women, more than men, reported high internal locus of control. After a second multivariate analysis, only bodily pain remained associated. It is concluded that there exist a strong and negative association between bodily pain and internal locus of control. Clients with severe pain often also suffer from low internal locus of control. This should be kept in mind when providing vocational rehabilitation.
Erratum In: Work. 2008;30(4):523Millet, Patrick [added]
The aim of the present study is to identify ethical dilemmas as experienced by hospital personnel. The dilemmas reported often focused on problems of hospitalised patients' autonomy. Tape-recorded interviews were performed with different categories of personnel, from different care areas. One of the problems was found to be a diminishing autonomy for hospitalised patients, especially in the areas of long-term and psychiatric care. According to the interviews the reasons for the obstacles for autonomy were due to the hospital organisation, the staff, the patients themselves and to relatives.
Two groups of children in the cities of Anadyr and Pevek in the Chukotka Region of the Soviet Far East were administered a Russian translation of the Children's Health Locus of Control Scale in July, 1991. Results were analyzed to assess the similarities between response patterns among the Russian children and those found in American children. The analyses revealed a consistency in the data suggesting both face and theoretical validity of the Scale. It appears that the underlying mediating variable related to the children's perceived control over their health is operating in this Region of Russia in much the same way that it does in the United States.
More knowledge is needed about the role of perceived control in the associations between different perceptions of daily occupations and positive health outcomes. The aim was to explore the associations between different subjective perceptions of daily occupations, in terms of occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with occupations, and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control in those associations.
A questionnaire including questions about perceptions of daily occupations, perceived control and life satisfaction were answered by a random sample of 488 middle-aged Swedish women. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations between perceptions of daily occupations and life satisfaction, and the role of perceived control.
After adjustments for perceived control women who perceived a high level of satisfaction with work and leisure, occupational balance, occupational meaning and occupational value perceived greater life satisfaction than the other women. Perceived control was not significant in the model.
It seems that occupational balance and occupational meaning were pivotal for the women's life satisfaction, but satisfaction with work and leisure, as well as perceived occupational value, was also of importance. The assumption that perceived control would have a role in the association between perceptions of occupations and life satisfaction was not confirmed.
The results indicate that occupational therapists need to focus on occupational balance, occupational meaning, occupational value and satisfaction with work and leisure to promote positive health outcomes, in terms of life satisfaction, when working with middle-aged female clients.
To describe the effects of restructuring, particularly redeployment, on nurses' personal and work lives, and to compare the utility of "survivor syndrome" and empowerment as alternative concepts for understanding these effects and planning change.
Twenty-six focus groups or interviews were held with 59 nurses working in three hospitals in Ontario, Canada.
Participants described how restructuring strategies had affected them as individuals, as members of nursing teams, and as employees. In each of these aspects of their work lives, relationships became less integrated, their work activities became less controllable, and the changes compromised their ability to deliver effective care.
Restructuring intensifies structural weaknesses in professions, such as nursing, whose members are primarily employed by bureaucracies. Nurses may not find survivor syndrome a useful model to explain their low morale following restructuring because it identifies nurses as "patients" in need of therapy. An empowerment model that takes into account nurses' concerns about uncertainty and integration may be more fruitful for devising strategies to enhance their ability to practice effectively in hospital settings.
Two studies investigated the effects of a video lottery terminal stopping device on gamblers' thoughts and behavior. This structural characteristic allows players to voluntarily stop the spinning of the reels. The first study investigated the effect of this device on the development of illusions of control. It was predicted that players using the stopping device would believe that (1) symbols displayed could differ depending on when the game is stopped, (2) there is a possibility of controlling the outcome of the game, (3) skills may be a factor influencing the results, and finally (4) a stopping device would improve the probability of personal success (i.e., developing the illusion of control). The second study aimed to further evaluate the effects of the stopping device on gambling behavior. It was hypothesised that using the stopping device would encourage players to increase the number of games played in a session. Results confirmed all predictions and showed that offering a stopping device on video lottery terminals modifies gamblers' cognition and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed in the context of responsible gambling policies.
Previous research suggests that having schizophrenia involves not being fully equipped to engage in daily occupations. This study was aimed at exploring relationships between occupational engagement and the issues of self-related variables, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life. Seventy-four outpatients with schizophrenia entered the study. Instruments used in this study were Profile of Occupational Engagement in People with Schizophrenia, Locus of Control, Mastery, Sense of Coherence, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Lancashire Quality of Life Profile. The results showed that a high level of occupational engagement was related to higher ratings of self-related variables, fewer psychiatric symptoms, and better ratings of quality of life, and vice versa. A significant difference and a linear trend were found among the three subgroups of different levels of occupational engagement and the estimated variables. In the regression model, negative symptoms and internal locus of control together explained 47% of the variance in occupational engagement. The results add a new dimension to understanding mental health and suggest the importance of assessing the level of occupational engagement.
This study analyses arguments for and against the notion of healthy lifestyles, and the construction of responsibility for health, in group discussions in Finland. With data from four focus groups, we identified five interpretative repertoires: a strong activity repertoire reflects the dominant cultural value of health and emphasizes self-control. Three other repertoires--illness, external barriers, and weak character--share the underlying values of the activity repertoire, but exemplify situations where the individual lacks control, seeking to justify deviations from the norm of activity. One counter-repertoire, the pleasure repertoire, questions the hegemonic value of health, and discusses other competing values. The discussion of health is an ongoing dialectical process drawing from the different repertoires. In order to avoid stigmatization and to save face in the social situation of a focus group, the subjects strive to balance their accounts of behaviours considered unhealthy by also claiming healthy behaviours. They also strike a balance between extreme rigidity and carelessness, emphasizing the ideal of moderation and harmony. The findings point to a need to consider variations in and underpinnings of a "good life" at the individual level. Encouraging people to specify the meaning and content of moderation in their personal lives could provide a new perspective for health education and health promotion.