Trauma affects children from all ethnicities, nationalities and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, indigenous children may experience trauma differently than their majority population peers due to traumatic histories of colonization and marginalization. This article reports on an exploratory qualitative study of how service providers in Western Montana and Northern Norway conceptualize Native American and Sámi children's experiences of trauma today. Findings reveal that participants relate current trauma experiences of indigenous youth to historical and intergenerational traumas.
To investigate the relationship between dimensions of the psychosocial work environment and the intent to quit among a new generation of nurses.
As a new generation of nurses enters the workforce, we know little about their perception of their current work environment and its impact on their intent to stay.
A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1002 nurses.
The nurses who intended to quit their positions perceived a significant effort/reward imbalance as well as a lack of social support. The nurses who intended to quit the profession perceived a significant effort/reward imbalance, high psychological demands and elevated job strain.
The balance between the level of effort expended and reward received plays an important role in young nurses' intent to leave.
Nurse Managers must offer Nexters, from the beginning of their career, a meaningful work and supportive environment. Without the efforts of the organization to improve the work environment and support nurses, this generation may not feel valued and move to another organization that will support them or another career that will offer fulfilment.
To compare the prevalence of ageism in Canada and the United States, in Canada, the Ageism Survey was published in the CARPnews Report on Ageism, and in the United States, the Survey was administered to a convenience sample and published in the Center Report and Fifty Plus. Most respondents in both countries perceived ageism as frequent, but it was reported more often in Canada than in the United States. If the Ageism Survey is used to measure the prevalence of ageism among various groups and countries, we can develop an "epidemiology of ageism" and begin to reduce ageism.
In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are divorced, living in urban areas with low income have a higher risk of physical or sexual abuse. This supports risk and anxiety as factors. Further testing of elder abuse using this theoretical framework is required.
This article documents the prevalence and national profile of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) grandparents who are raising their grandchildren, based on data from the American Community Survey/Census 2000 Supplementary Survey. In 2000 there were estimated to be nearly 53,000 AI/AN grandparent caregivers age 45 and older in the United States. Almost half of the caregiving grandparents had been raising a grandchild for five years or longer. The findings reveal a portrait of grandparents committed to raising their grandchildren despite the fact that many were living in extreme poverty, with ill health, and with limited resources and services. One-third of grandparent caregivers were living below the poverty line, and only one-quarter of these were receiving public assistance. Even when compared with their noncaregiving AI/AN peers, grandparents raising grandchildren were disproportionately female, poor, living with a functional disability, and living in overcrowded conditions. Implications for social work practice are presented and recommendations for policy and research are discussed.
Examining American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) resilience using the life course framework could inform public health strategies that support favorable health outcomes, despite adversity (e.g., discrimination, historical loss, comorbidity). A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published from 1970 to 2015 yielded eight articles on AI/AN life course and resilience. A content analysis identified three themes. AI/AN resilience is 1) an ongoing, dynamic process, 2) evident within linked lives and life transitions, and 3) accessed through cultural knowledge and practice. Resilience research could change the paradigm of AI/AN health research to guide asset-based approaches across the life course.
Seven Circles is a substance abuse prevention coalition in Southeast Alaska with a two-tiered structure consisting of local partnerships joined together in a regional coalition. Seven Circles incorporates a youth/adult partnership approach to accomplish its activities. This article describes the results of four annual administrations of a partnership member survey designed to assess the development and implementation of youth/adult partnerships in the local projects, assess the value of the partnerships to the participants, and gather feedback about the functioning of the Seven Circles Coalition. The results support the youth/adult partnership model and are also discussed in the context of youth empowerment.
Few studies have so far enquired into the relationship between being a grandparent and health and mortality outcomes, and the majority of these have looked exclusively at grandparents who take over parenting responsibility for their grandchildren. This study aims to fill this gap in the knowledge of how family structure is linked to mortality by focusing on whether being a grandparent in itself is associated with mortality. Norwegian parents in the age groups 40-73 are analysed using register data that encompass the entire population. The analysis is based on discrete-time hazard models, estimated for the years 1980-2008. I find a mortality disadvantage of being a grandfather, which is particularly strong for those who become grandfathers at an early age. Controlling for characteristics of the middle generation such as sex, education and marital status does not remove the association. For men the mortality disadvantage is not influenced by the number of grandchildren or the number of sets of grandchildren. For women there is significantly higher mortality only for those who become grandmothers in their thirties or forties, who are married or who have many children. Becoming a grandmother after age 50 is associated with significantly lower mortality. At least part of these associations are likely due to selection effects, however they may also to some extent be caused by the individuals' relationship with grandchildren, and children who have become parents themselves.