OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of recombinant, human GH on follicular development and oocyte retrieval after gonadotropin stimulation with the addition of GH or placebo to a standard IVF treatment regimen. Further, to investigate whether GH is a more effective adjuvant if the standard treatment regimen is preceded by GH injections. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: The IVF unit at university hospital. PATIENTS: Forty normally ovulating women, age 25 to 38 years, with infertility because of tubal factors and being classified as "poor responders" with at least two previously performed and failed IVF attempts. INTERVENTIONS: Human, recombinant GH (Genotropin, Kabi Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) or placebo (0.1 IU/kg body weight per day) was given SC as pretreatment during down regulation with GnRH and during stimulation with hMG according to the randomized protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of oocytes retrieved after stimulation, total amount of gonadotropin used, time required for stimulation, number of follicles developing, rate of fertilization, and cleavage in vitro. Further, the quality of embryos, development of the endometrium, rate of clinical pregnancy, and serum and follicular fluid (FF) concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 were estimated. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrieved did not differ significantly between the groups, nor did the amount of hMG required for stimulation. The fertilization rate increased in patients who had received GH. Growth hormone caused a significant increase in serum and FF levels of IGF-I. An increase in serum IGFBP-3 could also be recorded in patients who had received GH. CONCLUSION: Although certain beneficial effects were noted in GH-treated patients, the overall results did not support GH as a clinically useful adjuvant treatment.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alcohol is one of the few nongenetic factors that lower Lp(a) levels, but the metabolic mechanisms of this action are unknown. Alcohol inhibits the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Alcohol might also affect IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), which is an acute inhibitor of IGF-I. We studied how alcohol withdrawal affects Lp(a) levels and the GH/IGF-I/IGFBP-1 axis. Male alcohol abusers (n=27; 20 to 64 years old) were monitored immediately after alcohol withdrawal for 4 days. Twenty-six healthy men, mainly moderate drinkers, served as control subjects. Fasting blood samples were drawn to determine Lp(a), IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 (by ELISA, RIA, and immunoenzymometric assay, respectively). Nocturnal (12 hours) urine collection was performed in 9 alcoholics and 11 control subjects for GH analyses (RIA). The groups were similar in age and body mass index. Lp(a), GH, and IGF-I tended to be lower and IGFBP-1 higher in the alcoholics immediately after alcohol withdrawal than in the control subjects. During the 4-day observation in alcoholics, Lp(a) levels increased by 64% and IGF-I levels by 41%, whereas IGFBP-1 levels decreased by 59% (P
OBJECTIVE: Hyperleptinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia interrelate to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), and disturbances in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are linked to obesity and cardiovascular diseases. However, whether the association between leptin and the GH-IGF-I axis is altered with increasing obesity is not known. We therefore examined the relationship between leptin, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, insulin and proinsulin in men and women with or without obesity in a population study. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Healthy subjects (n=158; 85 men and 73 pre- and postmenopausal women) from the Northern Sweden MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) population were studied with a cross-sectional design. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Radioimmunoassays were used for the analyses of leptin, IGF-I and IGFBP-1, and ELISAs for specific insulin and proinsulin. RESULTS: Leptin inversely correlated to IGFBP-1 in non-obese men (P
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of combinations of cervical interleukin-6 (IL-6), cervical interleukin-8 (IL-8), the phosphorylated isoform of insulin-like growth-factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cervical ultrasonography in the prediction of preterm birth. DESIGN: Prospective follow up. SETTING: Oulu University Hospital maternity clinic from February 1997 to July 1998. POPULATION: Women with singleton pregnancies (n = 77), referred from outpatient clinics at 22-32 weeks of gestation with symptoms (uterine contractions) or signs (cervical change) of threatened preterm birth. Symptomless women (n = 78) matched for gestational age, parity and maternal age at recruitment were studied as a reference group. METHODS: A urine sample for bacterial culture was collected, and cervical swab samples for assays of interleukin-6 and -8 and phoshorylated IGFBP-1 were taken before digital cervical examination. A Pap smear for analysis of bacterial vaginosis and samples for analysis of chlamydia and streptococci were also obtained. Cervical measurements were made by transvaginal ultrasonography. The same sampling and cervical measurement were repeated twice at two-week intervals. The cutoff values of the markers were determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Preterm birth ( 0.36 at recruitment predicted preterm birth in 25% (5/20) of the study group compared with 9% (5/54); LR+ 2.2 (95% CI 1.03-4.7). Cervical phosphorylated IGFBP-1 > 6.4 microg/L [LR+ 1.8 (95% CI 0.7-2.9)], interleukin-8 > 3739 ng/L [LR+ 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.4)], and ultrasonograpic cervical length 21.0 microg/L), 36% (4/11) compared with 4.6% (3/65), LR+ 6.7 (95% CI 2.7-17), the sensitivity being 67% (4/6) and the specificity 90% (63/70). Elevated phosphorylated IGFBP-1 concentrations (> 21.6 microg/L) were also associated with an increased risk of neonatal infections; LR+ 8.0 (95% CI 3.5-18). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in cervical IL-6 concentration and the ultrasonographically measured cervical index appear to be associated with preterm birth. A combination of these markers with measurement of cervical IL-8 appears to be the best predictor of preterm birth. Neither the sensitivity nor specificity of the tests used in this study are good enough to predict preterm birth for clinical decision making. Cervical phosphorylated IGFBP-1 seems to be a marker of puerperal and neonatal infectious morbidity in cases of threatened preterm delivery, suggesting early tissue degradation at the choriodecidual interface.
To investigate whether sitagliptin affects copeptin and osmolality, suggesting arginine vasopressin activation and a potential for fluid retention, compared with placebo, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and newly discovered type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. A second aim was to confirm whether copeptin correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1.
Fasting blood samples were used from the BEta-cell function in Glucose abnormalities and Acute Myocardial Infarction trial, in which patients recently hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome and with newly detected abnormal glucose tolerance were randomized to sitagliptin 100?mg once daily (n?=?34) or placebo (n?=?37). Copeptin, osmolality and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 were analysed at baseline and after 12?weeks.
Copeptin and osmolality were unaffected by sitagliptin. There was no correlation between copeptin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1.
Sitagliptin therapy does not appear to be related to activation of the arginine vasopressin system.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship among metabolic control, IGF-I, and growth in pubertal diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 72 diabetic children, we have studied the pattern of change of IGF-I, IGF-I SD score, IGF binding protein (BP)-1, and growth rate in different pubertal stages and have analyzed their relation to age sex, weight/length index, HbA1c, insulin concentration, insulin dose, and dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DHEAS). RESULTS: The serum IGF-I values increased up to Tanner stage 4 and thereafter decreased, whereas IGFBP-1 showed the inverse pattern. When transforming the IGF-I values into SD scores, correcting for age, sex, and pubertal stage, it was shown that the deviation from normal values increased with increasing pubertal stage in boys, but was equal in stages 3-5 in girls. Using multiple regression analysis, HbA1c, insulin dose, and DHEAS were significantly correlated to IGF-I SD score (R2 = 0.253, P = 0.001). IGFBP-I levels in the afternoon were within normal range. LogIGFBP-1 showed an inverse correlation, to insulin concentration in single correlation (r = -0.26, P = 0.02). In single correlation, growth rate correlated significantly to insulin dose (r = 0.25, P = 0.03). In a multiple regression analysis, only DHEAS and IGF-I SD score were found to be significantly correlated to growth rate (R2 = 0.370, P
Oral glucose tolerance test was performed first in a hypoestrogenic state after suppression by long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and, second, in a hyperestrogenic state after stimulation by human menopausal gonadotropins.
Serum concentrations of IGFBP-1, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured before and 2 hours after glucose administration.
Before and after glucose administration, the serum IGFBP-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the hyperestrogenic state (estradiol [E2] level 3.5 +/- 0.57 nmol/L) after ovarian stimulation than in the GnRH-analogue-induced hypoestrogenic state before the gonadotropin treatment (E2 level 0.10 +/- 0.02 nmol/L). On both occasions glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia caused a significant decrease in the circulating IGFBP-1 levels, whereas the IGF-I levels remained unchanged. There was a significant correlation between E2 and the insulin-suppressed IGFBP-1 level. The sum of follicular diameters correlated positively with the serum IGFBP-1 concentration.
Gonadotropin-induced hyperestrogenism is related to elevated serum IGFBP-1 levels, either via estrogen-stimulated synthesis or via increased contribution from multiple follicles. Glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia suppresses serum IBFBP-1 concentration equally both in the hypoestrogenic and hyperestrogenic states. Because of similar IGF-I levels, it is likely that the biological activity of IGF-I is different before and after gonadotropin stimulations.
Effect of severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to a mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-binding proteins, and ternary complex formation throughout life.
Measurement of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins has become commonplace in the indirect assessment of the integrity of the GH axis. However, the relative effect of GH deficiency (GHD) on each component of the IGF axis and the merit of any one parameter as a diagnostic test have not been defined in a homogeneous population across all ages. We therefore measured IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and acid labile subunit (ALS) in 27 GHD subjects (aged 5-82 yr) from an extended kindred in Northeast Brazil with an identical GHRH receptor mutation and in 55 indigenous controls (aged 5-80 yr). The effect of GHD on the theoretical distribution of IGFs between the IGFBPs and the ternary complex was also examined. All components of the IGF axis, measured and theoretical, showed complete separation between GHD and control subjects, except IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 concentrations, which did not differ. The most profound effects of GHD were on total IGF-I, IGF-I in the ternary complex, and ALS. The proportion of IGF-I associated with IGFBP-3 remained constant throughout life, but was significantly lower in GHD due to an increase in IGF-I/IGFBP-2 complexes. IGF-I in the ternary complex was determined principally by concentrations of ALS in GHD and IGFBP-3 in controls, implying that ALS has greater GH dependency. In the controls, IGF-II was associated primarily with IGFBP-3 and to a lesser extent with IGFBP-2, whereas in GHD the reverse was found. There was also a dramatic decline in the proportion of free ALS in GHD adults that was not evident in controls. As diagnostic tests, IGF-I in the ternary complex and total IGF-I provided the greatest separation between GHD and controls in childhood. Similarly, in older adults the best separation was achieved with IGF-I in the ternary complex, with free ALS being optimal in younger adults. Severe GHD not only reduces the amounts of IGFs, IGFBP-3, and ALS, but also modifies the distribution of the IGFs bound to each IGFBP. Diagnostic tests used in the investigation of GHD should be tailored to the age of the individual. In particular, measurement of IGF-I in the ternary complex may prove useful in the diagnosis of GHD in children and older adults, whereas free ALS may be more relevant to younger adults.
OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have endocrine effects that may interfere with growth and sexual maturation in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEDs on growth and pubertal development in girls with epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: Forty girls taking valproate (VPA), 19 girls taking carbamazepine (CBZ), and 18 girls taking oxcarbazepine (OXC) for epilepsy and 49 healthy control girls participated in the study, which included a cross-sectional clinical examination when the girls were 8 to 18 years old and a longitudinal growth analysis from the age of 1 year. RESULTS: VPA, CBZ, or OXC did not affect linear growth or pubertal development in girls with epilepsy. However, the patients taking VPA gained weight, and an increase in relative weight was seen in girls who started their medication before as well as during puberty. The body mass index of the VPA-treated girls (19.8 +/- 4.8 kg/m2) was higher than that of the control girls (18.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m2) at clinical examination. The weight of the girls taking CBZ or OXC for epilepsy was similar to that of the control girls. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were higher in girls treated with CBZ and OXC than in the control girls, but AEDs did not affect fasting serum insulin, IGF-binding protein-1, or IGF-binding protein-3 concentrations in girls on VPA, CBZ, or OXC medication during the period of exposure (average 2.8, 4.1, and 1.9 years, respectively) in this study. CONCLUSIONS: AEDs do not seem to have any adverse effects on linear growth or sexual maturation in girls with epilepsy. VPA-related weight gain can be seen already in prepuberty and it is not associated with hyperinsulinemia in these young patients. The clinical significance of high circulating concentrations of IGF-I in patients taking CBZ or OXC remains to be defined.
OBJECTIVES. To study the effects of advice on diet, exercise and their combination on oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), insulin secretion, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein, IGFBP-1. DESIGN: A 6-month, randomized, controlled intervention study. SETTING: Primary health care centres in Sollentuna, Stockholm and the Department of Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS. One hundred and fifty-seven normoglycaemic healthy men, mean age 46 years, range 35-60 years, with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. INTERVENTIONS: Advice on diet (D, n = 40), exercise (E, n = 39) a combination of both (DE, n = 39) and a control group (C, n = 39). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. An OGTT, insulin secretion, IGF-1 and its binding protein, IGFBP-1. RESULTS. The number of pathological OGTTs in the intervention groups decreased from 42/118 to 33/118 whilst the number in the control group did not change. Fasting insulin levels decreased in groups E and DE from 8.8-7.4 mU L-1 (P