This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
Vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance have been associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in population studies. We wanted to investigate the influence of vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance on LV hypertrophy and its function in patients with hypertension. In 89 patients with essential hypertension and electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy, we measured blood pressure; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic euglucaemic clamp; minimal forearm vascular resistance (MFVR) by plethysmography; intima-media cross-sectional area of the common carotid arteries (IMA) by ultrasound; and LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), systolic function and diastolic filling by echocardiography after two weeks of placebo treatment. LV mass index correlated to IMA/height (r=0.36, P=0.001), serum insulin (r=-0.25, P
We investigated the association of various lipoprotein traits, apolipoproteins and their ratios with the deterioration of glycemia, incident type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in a large population-based Metabolic Syndrome Men (METSIM) Study.
The METSIM Study includes 10,197 Finnish men, aged 45-73 years, and examined in 2005-2010. From 6607 non-diabetic participants without statin treatment at baseline, 386 developed incident type 2 diabetes during a 5.9-year follow-up. A total of 3330 non-diabetic participants without statin treatment had both baseline and follow-up visit data, and were included in statistical analyses of the worsening of glycemia.
Compared to single lipid and lipoprotein measurements, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein ratios were better predictors of the glucose area under the curve and incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors. The apolipoprotein B/LDL cholesterol ratio was the strongest predictor of the worsening of glycemia, whereas the apolipoprotein A1/HDL cholesterol ratio was the strongest predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. The associations of lipoprotein traits, apolipoproteins and their ratios with insulin sensitivity were stronger than those with insulin secretion.
The apolipoprotein B/LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1/HDL cholesterol ratios were the strongest predictors of the worsening of glycemia and incident type 2 diabetes, respectively.
Raised blood pressure (BP) response during exercise independently predicts future hypertension. Subjects with higher BP in childhood also have elevated BP later in life. Therefore, the factors related to the regulation of exercise BP in children needs to be well understood. We hypothesized that physiological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors would influence BP response during exercise in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 439 Danish third-grade children and 364 ninth-grade adolescents. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured with sphygmomanometer during a maximal aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model was used to test the hypotheses. In boys, HOMA-IR score and BMI were positively related to SBP response during exercise (ß = 1.03, P = 0.001, and ß = 0.58, P = 0.017, respectively). The effects sizes of HOMA-IR score and BMI and the significance levels only changed slightly (ß = 0.91, P = 0.004, and ß = 0.43, P = 0.08, respectively) when the two variables were added in the same model. A significant positive association was observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls (ß = 3.13 and P = 0.002). HOMA-IR score and BMI were found to be positively related to the SBP response in male children and youth. At least partly, adiposity and insulin sensitivity seem to influence exercise SBP through different mechanisms. The positive relationship observed between aerobic fitness and SBP response in girls remains unexplainable for us, although post hoc analyses revealed that it was the case in the ninth graders only.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,483 subjects aged 35-70 years participating in a large family study of type 2 diabetes in Finland and Sweden (the Botnia study) were included in the analysis of cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome. In subjects who had type 2 diabetes (n = 1,697), impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 798) or insulin-resistance with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1,988), the metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of at least two of the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or microalbuminuria. Cardiovascular mortality was assessed in 3,606 subjects with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. RESULTS: In women and men, respectively, the metabolic syndrome was seen in 10 and 15% of subjects with NGT, 42 and 64% of those with IFG/IGT, and 78 and 84% of those with type 2 diabetes. The risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was increased threefold in subjects with the syndrome (P
Insulin resistance participates in the pathogenesis of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. CKD patients have impaired insulin sensitivity, but the clinical correlates and outcome associations of impaired insulin sensitivity in this vulnerable population are not well defined.
The prospective cohort study was from the third examination cycle of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a population-based survey of elderly men ages 70-71 years; insulin sensitivity was assessed by glucose disposal rate as measured with euglycemic clamps. Inclusion criterion was eGFR
Comment In: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Apr;9(4):638-4024677558
Coffee and tea consumption could potentially reduce the risk of stroke because these beverages have antioxidant properties, and coffee may improve insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations of coffee and tea consumption with risk of stroke subtypes.
We used prospective data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort study of 26 556 male Finnish smokers aged 50 to 69 years without a history of stroke at baseline. Coffee and tea consumption was assessed at baseline using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through December 2004, 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were ascertained from national registries.
After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, both consumption of coffee and tea was statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of cerebral infarction but not intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction for men in the highest category of coffee consumption (>/=8 cups/d) was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.90; P for trend /=2 cups/d) with those in the lowest category (nondrinkers) was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.92; P for trend=0.002).
These results suggest that high consumption of coffee and tea may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction among men, independent of known cardiovascular risk factors.
Men run a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than women, even if hypertensive. This has been attributed to a more pronounced central (abdominal) fat distribution in men as well as menopausal state in women. The hypothesis to be tested in hypertensives was that men have more pronounced insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors than pre-menopausal, but not post-menopausal, women. We carried out a cross-sectional observation study of middle-aged hypertensives of both sexes, divided into two age groups, below or over 50 years of age. The study was performed in untreated out-patients, visiting a hypertension policlinic, in Uppsala, Sweden. Three hundred men and 170 women with a mean age of 57 years were investigated. Measurements were taken by: physical examination (body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure); intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT); euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp; and blood sampling for lipoprotein lipid fractions, uric acid, and free fatty acids. The results were that pre-menopausal women showed a higher insulin-mediated glucose disposal (7.6 vs5.8 mg/kg/min; P
We studied the impact of a family history of type 2 diabetes on physical fitness, lifestyle factors and diabetes-related metabolic factors.
The Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study is a population-based study in Western Finland, which includes a random sample of 5,208 individuals aged 18 to 75 years identified through the national Finnish Population Registry. Physical activity, dietary habits and family history of type 2 diabetes were assessed by questionnaires and physical fitness by a validated 2 km walking test. Insulin secretion and action were assessed based upon OGTT measurements of insulin and glucose.
A family history of type 2 diabetes was associated with a 2.4-fold risk of diabetes and lower physical fitness (maximal aerobic capacity 29.2 +/- 7.2 vs 32.1 +/- 7.0, p = 0.01) despite having similar reported physical activity to that of individuals with no family history. The same individuals also had reduced insulin secretion adjusted for insulin resistance, i.e. disposition index (p
Diabetes prevalence is substantially higher among Canadian First Nations populations than the non-First Nation population. Fasting serum triglycerides have been found to be an important predictor of incident diabetes among non-indigenous populations. However, there is a great need to understand diabetes progression within specific ethnic groups, particularly First Nations populations.
The purpose of this study was to test for an association between fasting serum triglycerides and incident diabetes, changes in insulin resistance and changes in ß-cell function in a Manitoba First Nation cohort.
Study data were from two diabetes screening studies in Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada, collected in 2002/2003 and 2011/2012. The cohort was composed of respondents to both screening studies (n=171). Fasting blood samples and anthropometric, health and demographic data were collected. A generalised linear model with Poisson distribution was used to test for an association between fasting triglycerides and incident diabetes.
There were 35 incident cases of diabetes among 128 persons without diabetes at baseline. Participants who developed incident type 2 diabetes were significantly older and had significantly higher body mass index (BMI; p=0.012), total cholesterol (p=0.007), fasting triglycerides (p