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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 24-week dietary and physical activity lifestyle intervention reduces hepatic insulin resistance in the obese with chronic hepatitis C.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117638
Source
Liver Int. 2013 Mar;33(3):410-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Venessa Pattullo
Andres Duarte-Rojo
Wael Soliman
Florencia Vargas-Vorackova
Sanjeev Sockalingam
Ivan G Fantus
Johane Allard
Jenny Heathcote
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
Liver Int. 2013 Mar;33(3):410-9
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Basal Metabolism
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Exercise Therapy - methods
Female
Hepatitis C, Chronic - complications - pathology
Humans
Insulin Resistance - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity - physiology
Obesity - complications - diet therapy - therapy
Ontario
Prospective Studies
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
Obesity- and virus-mediated insulin resistance (IR) are associated with adverse hepatic and metabolic outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study evaluates the tolerability and effects of a dietary and physical activity (PA) intervention in obese patients with insulin-resistant CHC.
Obese patients (body mass index, BMI =30 kg/m(2) ) with CHC were recruited prospectively. Non-diabetic patients with IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR, HOMA-IR >2.0) proceeded to a 24-week lifestyle intervention comprising pedometer monitored increase in PA (=10 000 steps/day) and an individualised dietary plan.
Ten non-cirrhotic and six cirrhotic patients [age 52 ± 8.5 years, BMI 35.9 (31.46-38.21)kg/m(2) ] were recruited, of whom all 16 (100%) completed the 24-week protocol. Increase in PA from 6853 (2440-9533) to 10 697 (7959-13566) steps/day (P = 0.001) and reduction in caloric intake from 2263 (1805.4-2697.0) to 1281 (1099.5-1856.3) kcal/day (equivalent to reduction of median 33% (25.3-49.8%), P
PubMed ID
23278982 View in PubMed
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The -238 and -308 G-->A polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene promoter are not associated with features of the insulin resistance syndrome or altered birth weight in Danish Caucasians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47878
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1731-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2000
Author
S K Rasmussen
S A Urhammer
J N Jensen
T. Hansen
K. Borch-Johnsen
O. Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center and Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1731-4
Date
Apr-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth Weight - genetics
Body constitution
Body mass index
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Female
Genotype
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Lipids - blood
Male
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Promoter Regions (Genetics)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - genetics
Abstract
Recently, two G-->A polymorphisms at positions -308 and -238, in the promoter of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene, have been identified. These variants have, in different ethnic groups, been linked to estimates of insulin resistance and obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether these genetic variants of TNF-alpha were associated with features of the insulin resistance syndrome or alterations in birth weight in two Danish study populations comprising 380 unrelated young healthy subjects and 249 glucose-tolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. All study participants underwent an iv glucose tolerance test with the addition of tolbutamide after 20 min. In addition, a number of biochemical and anthropometric measures were performed on each subject. The subjects were genotyped for the polymorphisms by applying PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Neither of the variants was related to altered insulin sensitivity index or other features of the insulin resistance syndrome (body mass index, waist to hip ratio, fat mass, fasting serum lipids or fasting serum insulin or C-peptide). Birth weight and the ponderal index were also not associated with the polymorphisms. In conclusion, although the study was carried out on sufficiently large study samples, the study does not support a major role of the -308 or -238 substitutions of the TNF-alpha gene in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance or altered birth weight among Danish Caucasian subjects.
PubMed ID
10770222 View in PubMed
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The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85800
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun;93(6):2294-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Grarup Niels
Andreasen Camilla H
Andersen Mette K
Albrechtsen Anders
Sandbaek Annelli
Lauritzen Torsten
Borch-Johnsen Knut
Jørgensen Torben
Schmitz Ole
Hansen Torben
Pedersen Oluf
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center, Niels Steensens Vej 1, Gentofte, Denmark. ngrp@steno.dk
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun;93(6):2294-9
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Fasting - blood
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Screening
Genotype
Heterozygote
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Linkage Disequilibrium
Lipase - genetics
Motor Activity - genetics - physiology
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Promoter Regions (Genetics)
Abstract
CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.
PubMed ID
18364377 View in PubMed
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2000 EASD/Sankyo Insulin Resistance Project Award.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47796
Source
Diabetologia. 2000 Oct;43(10):42-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Source
Diabetologia. 2000 Oct;43(10):42-3
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Awards and Prizes
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
History, 20th Century
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Portraits
Sweden
PubMed ID
11079763 View in PubMed
Less detail

2001 EASD/Sankyo Insulin Resistance Project Award.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47634
Source
Diabetologia. 2001 Oct;44(10):suppl 47-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001

Abdominal fat from spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and risk for subsequent diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144207
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;95(7):3272-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
William D Leslie
Sora M Ludwig
Suzanne Morin
Author Affiliation
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R2H 2A6. bleslie@sbgh.mb.ca
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;95(7):3272-6
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Area Under Curve
Body Composition
Bone Density
Canada
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications - diagnosis
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Middle Aged
Obesity, Abdominal - complications - diagnosis
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Abstract
Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine provides an index of abdominal fat.
Our objective was to examine the hypothesis that DXA-derived abdominal fat measurement in women undergoing osteoporosis investigation predicts risk for subsequent diagnosis of diabetes.
This historical cohort study was derived from the Manitoba Bone Density Program Database for the Province of Manitoba, Canada.
30,252 nondiabetic women aged 40 yr and older were referred for baseline osteoporosis assessment with DXA between January 1990 and March 2007.
Each woman's longitudinal provincial health service record was assessed for the presence of diabetes diagnosis codes after DXA testing.
During 5.2 + or - 2.6 yr of observation, 1252 (4.1%) women met the case definition for diabetes. A greater proportion of abdominal fat from spine DXA was strongly related to subsequent diabetes diagnosis in models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other comorbidities. Those in the highest quintile had 3.56 (95% confidence interval = 2.67-4.75) times the risk for subsequent diabetes diagnosis compared with those in the lowest (reference) quintile. Fat from hip DXA was not predictive of subsequent diabetes after adjustment for the same variables (1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26).
Predictive information about diabetes risk can be obtained from spine DXA scans performed for osteoporosis risk assessment. This is consistent with evidence linking abdominal fat with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.
PubMed ID
20392865 View in PubMed
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Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish community. Skaraborg hypertension and diabetes project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79717
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2006 Dec;24(4):211-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Bari Muhammad Rizuanul
Ostgren Carl Johan
Råstam Lennart
Lindblad Ulf
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Skövde, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2006 Dec;24(4):211-7
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat
Aged
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - complications - drug therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - blood - complications
Waist-Hip Ratio
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Primary care in Skara, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 198 men and 186 women with type 2 diabetes who consecutively completed an annual check-up in 1992-1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abdominal obesity was defined according to criteria for the metabolic syndrome using the waist circumference (WC): > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA), and was dichotomized by the 75th percentile (IR). RESULTS: Abdominal obesity was found in 66 men (33%), and in 106 women (57%). Pearson's correlation coefficients between components of the metabolic syndrome and IR were statistically significant for WC, waist-hip ratio, serum triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, and were higher for WC (0.40) than for waist-hip ratio (0.23) in both genders (p
PubMed ID
17118860 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294588
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
D P Andersson
E Arner
D E Hogling
M Rydén
P Arner
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2017 10; 41(10):1564-1569
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adipocytes - cytology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal - cytology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) fat cell size and number (cellularity) are linked to insulin resistance. Men are generally more insulin resistant than women but it is unknown whether there is a gender dimorphism in SAT cellularity. The objective was to determine SAT cellularity and its relationship to insulin sensitivity in men and women.
In a cohort study performed at an outpatient academic clinic in Sweden, 798 women and 306 men were included. Estimated SAT mass (ESAT) was derived from measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a formula. SAT biopsies were obtained to measure mean fat cell size; SAT adipocyte number was obtained by dividing ESAT with mean fat cell weight. Fat cell size was also compared with level of insulin sensitivity in vivo.
Over the entire range of body mass index (BMI) both fat cell size and number correlated positively with ESAT in either sex. On average, fat cell size was larger in men than in women, which was driven by significantly larger fat cells in non-obese men compared with non-obese women; no gender effect on fat cell size was seen in obese subjects. For all subjects fat cell number was larger in women than men, which was driven by a gender effect among non-obese individuals (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
28630459 View in PubMed
Less detail

Abundance of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 is increased by high-fat feeding in Fischer 344 X Brown Norway (F1) rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90141
Source
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Apr;296(4):F762-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Riazi Shahla
Tiwari Swasti
Sharma Nikhil
Rash Arjun
Ecelbarger C M
Author Affiliation
Associate Professor, Dept. of Medicine, Georgetown Univ., 4000 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC, 20007, USA.
Source
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009 Apr;296(4):F762-70
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Biological Markers - urine
Blood pressure
Blotting, Western
Crosses, Genetic
Cyclic N-Oxides - pharmacology
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - metabolism
Dinoprost - analogs & derivatives - urine
Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology
Furosemide - pharmacology
Glucose Intolerance - metabolism - physiopathology
Hypertension - metabolism - physiopathology
Insulin Resistance
Kidney Medulla - drug effects - metabolism
Male
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester - pharmacology
Natriuresis
Nitric Oxide - urine
Nitric Oxide Synthase - antagonists & inhibitors - metabolism
Oxidative Stress
Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors - pharmacology
Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters - antagonists & inhibitors - metabolism
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase - metabolism
Spin Labels
Telemetry
Time Factors
Up-Regulation
Abstract
Insulin resistance is associated with hypertension by mechanisms likely involving the kidney. To determine how the major apical sodium transporter of the thick ascending limb, the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is regulated by high-fat feeding, we treated young male, Fischer 344 X Brown Norway (F344BN) rats for 8 wk with diets containing either normal (NF, 4%) or high (HF, 36%) fat, by weight, primarily as lard. HF-fed rats had impaired glucose tolerance, increased urine excretion of 8-isoprostane (a marker of oxidative stress), increased protein levels for NKCC2 (50-125%) and the renal outer medullary potassium channel (106%), as well as increased natriuretic response to furosemide (20-40%). To test the role of oxidative stress in this response, in study 2, rats were fed the NF or HF diet plus plain drinking water, or water containing N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (100 mg/l), or tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic (1 mmol/l). The combination of tempol with HF nullified the increase in medullary NKCC2, while l-NAME with HF led to the highest expression of medullary NKCC2 (to 498% of NF mean). However, neither of these drugs dramatically affected the elevated natriuretic response to furosemide with HF. Finally, l-NAME led to a marked increase in blood pressure (measured by radiotelemetry), which was significantly enhanced with HF. Mean arterial blood pressure at 7 wk was as follows (mmHg): NF, 100 +/- 2; NF plus l-NAME, 122 +/- 3; and HF plus l-NAME, 131 +/- 2. Overall, HF feeding increased the abundance of NKCC2. Inappropriately high sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb via NKCC2 may contribute to hypertension with insulin resistance.
PubMed ID
19193725 View in PubMed
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576 records – page 1 of 58.