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Amplification of plant volatile defence against insect herbivory in a warming Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302856
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2019
Author
Tao Li
Thomas Holst
Anders Michelsen
Riikka Rinnan
Author Affiliation
Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. tao.li@bio.ku.dk.
Source
Nat Plants. 2019 06; 5(6):568-574
Date
06-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Betula - immunology - parasitology
Ecosystem
Global warming
Herbivory
Insecta - physiology
Tundra
Volatile Organic Compounds - metabolism
Abstract
Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play fundamental roles in atmospheric chemistry and ecological processes by contributing to aerosol formation1 and mediating species interactions2. Rising temperatures and the associated shifts in vegetation composition have been shown to be the primary drivers of plant VOC emissions in Arctic ecosystems3. Although herbivorous insects also strongly alter plant VOC emissions2, no studies have addressed the impact of herbivory on plant VOC emissions in the Arctic. Here we show that warming dramatically increases the amount, and alters the blend, of VOCs released in response to herbivory. We observed that a tundra ecosystem subjected to warming, by open-top chambers, for 8 or 18 years showed a fourfold increase in leaf area eaten by insect herbivores. Herbivory by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) larvae, and herbivory-mimicking methyl jasmonate application, on the widespread circumpolar dwarf birch (Betula nana) both substantially increased emissions of terpenoids. The long-term warming treatments and mimicked herbivory caused, on average, a two- and fourfold increase in monoterpene emissions, respectively. When combined, emissions increased 11-fold, revealing a strong synergy between warming and herbivory. The synergistic effect was even more pronounced for homoterpene emissions. These findings suggest that, in the rapidly warming Arctic, insect herbivory may be a primary determinant of VOC emissions during periods of active herbivore feeding.
PubMed ID
31182843 View in PubMed
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Combined effects of environmental disturbance and climate warming on insect herbivory in mountain birch in subarctic forests: Results of 26-year monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290999
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 601-602:802-811
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-01-2017
Author
M V Kozlov
V Zverev
E L Zvereva
Author Affiliation
Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address: mikoz@utu.fi.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 601-602:802-811
Date
Dec-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Betula
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Forests
Global warming
Herbivory
Insecta - physiology
Russia
Abstract
Both pollution and climate affect insect-plant interactions, but the combined effects of these two abiotic drivers of global change on insect herbivory remain almost unexplored. From 1991 to 2016, we monitored the population densities of 25 species or species groups of insects feeding on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in 29 sites and recorded leaf damage by insects in 21 sites in subarctic forests around the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia. The leaf-eating insects demonstrated variable, and sometimes opposite, responses to pollution-induced forest disturbance and to climate variations. Consequently, we did not discover any general trend in herbivory along the disturbance gradient. Densities of eight species/species groups correlated with environmental disturbance, but these correlations weakened from 1991 to 2016, presumably due to the fivefold decrease in emissions of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals from the smelter. The densities of externally feeding defoliators decreased from 1991 to 2016 and the densities of leafminers increased, while the leaf roller densities remained unchanged. Consequently, no overall temporal trend in the abundance of birch-feeding insects emerged despite a 2-3°C elevation in spring temperatures. Damage to birch leaves by insects decreased during the observation period in heavily disturbed forests, did not change in moderately disturbed forests and tended to increase in pristine forests. The temporal stability of insect-plant interactions, quantified by the inverse of the coefficient of among-year variations of herbivore population densities and of birch foliar damage, showed a negative correlation with forest disturbance. We conclude that climate differently affects insect herbivory in heavily stressed versus pristine forests, and that herbivorous insects demonstrate diverse responses to environmental disturbance and climate variations. This diversity of responses, in combination with the decreased stability of insect-plant interactions, increases the uncertainty in predictions on the impacts of global change on forest damage by insects.
PubMed ID
28578238 View in PubMed
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Structural stability as a consistent predictor of phenological events.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299496
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2018 06 13; 285(1880):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-13-2018
Author
Chuliang Song
Serguei Saavedra
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 02139 Cambridge, MA, USA.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2018 06 13; 285(1880):
Date
06-13-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biota
Greenland
Insecta - physiology
Models, Biological
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Pollination
Seasons
Abstract
The timing of the first and last seasonal appearance of a species in a community typically follows a pattern that is governed by temporal factors. While it has been shown that changes in the environment are linked to phenological changes, the direction of this link appears elusive and context-dependent. Thus, finding consistent predictors of phenological events is of central importance for a better assessment of expected changes in the temporal dynamics of ecological communities. Here we introduce a measure of structural stability derived from species interaction networks as an estimator of the expected range of environmental conditions compatible with the existence of a community. We test this measure as a predictor of changes in species richness recorded on a daily basis in a high-arctic plant-pollinator community during two spring seasons. We find that our measure of structural stability is the only consistent predictor of changes in species richness among different ecological and environmental variables. Our findings suggest that measures based on the notion of structural stability can synthesize the expected variation of environmental conditions tolerated by a community, and explain more consistently the phenological changes observed in ecological communities.
PubMed ID
29899073 View in PubMed
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Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294970
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-07-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Aimée T Classen
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; akoltz@wustl.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Date
08-07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Food chain
Fungi - chemistry - physiology
Global warming
Insecta - physiology
Nitrogen - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Spiders - physiology
Tundra
Abstract
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result, instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead, induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover, given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with climate change, our findings suggest that the observed cascading effects of this common predator on detrital processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in decomposition rates.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30038011 View in PubMed
Less detail