BACKGROUND: The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. METHODS: In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. CONCLUSIONS: Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to contribute to the increasing incidence or the male predominance.
In the paper there are presented data on the hygienic evaluation of the air pollution in the city of Kazan as a risk factor for the public health. The largest contribution to the air pollution in the city of Kazan was shown to be endowed by vehicles. The proportion of vehicle emissions in total emissions in the city in 2012 amounted to 71.4%. According to monitoring data the average annual concentrations of pollutant substances in 2012 exceeded the hygienic standards for benzo (a) pyrene--in 2.5 times, soot--2.2 times, nitrogen dioxide--1.8 times, formaldehyde--1.7 times. The risk of inhalation exposure is assessed as high, the greatest contribution to the risk is contributed by suspended matter PM2.5, soot and nitrogen dioxide.
OBJECTIVES: Powder painting is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitisation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder painters and to describe the exposure to OAAs. METHODS: In all, 205 subjects in 32 enterprises participated: 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers in 25 powder paint shops and 86 unexposed workers. They completed a questionnaire about working conditions and symptoms and took part in a medical examination, which included a lung function test. Urine samples, for determination of two OAAs, and blood samples, for analysis of specific antibodies against the OAAs, were taken. In addition, 33 paint samples were analysed for nine OAAs. RESULTS: The powder painters reported more work-related respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects did. The prevalence of three or more symptoms was 24% in subjects with low exposure, 44% in highly exposed individuals, 46% in formerly exposed subjects and 19% in unexposed workers. Asthma symptoms were frequent, 7%, 40%, 15% and 2%, respectively. Regression analyses of the lung volumes did not show any influence of exposure. IgG, but not IgE, against the OAAs and metabolites of OAAs was found in some subjects, but no associations with the exposure could be observed. OAAs were found in only small amounts in the paint samples. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to organic acid anhydrides was estimated to be low, and yet, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms from the eyes and the airways was relatively high among the powder painters, and these symptoms, but not the lung volumes, were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by irritative properties of the powder paint dust.
To protect the health of those occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica, the main industries in European Union associated with exposure to respirable silica, agreed on appropriate measures for the improvement of working conditions through the application of good practices, as part of 'The Agreement on Workers Health Protection through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it' (NEPSI agreement), signed in April 2006. The present paper examines trends in exposure to respirable crystalline silica in Finland prior to and following the implementation of the NEPSI agreement and includes a working example of the NEPSI approach in the concrete industry. Data derived from workplace exposure assessments during the years 1994-2013 are presented, including 2556 air samples collected mostly indoors, from either the breathing zone of workers or from stationary points usually at a height of 1.5 m above the floor, with the aim to estimate average exposure of workers to respiratory crystalline silica during an 8-h working day. The aim was, to find out how effective this unique approach has been in the management of one of the major occupational hazards in the concerned industries. Application of good practices as described by the NEPSI agreement coincides with a strong decline in the exposure to respirable crystalline silica in Finnish workplaces, as represented by the clientele of Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. During the years followed in the present study, we see a >10-fold decrease in the average and median exposures to respirable silica. Prior to the implementation of the NEPSI agreement, >50% of the workplace measurements yielded results above the OEL8 h (0.2mg m(-3)). As of present (2013), circa 10% of the measurements are above of or identical to the OEL8 h (0.05mg m(-3)).
In establishing the guideline values for chemical contaminants in drinking water, the contribution of inhalation and dermal routes associated with showering/bathing needs to be evaluated. The present article reviews the current approaches available for evaluating the importance of inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to drinking water contaminants (DWCs) and integrates them within a 2-tier approach. Accordingly, tier 1 would evaluate whether the dermal or inhalation route is likely to contribute to at least 10% of the dose received from ingestion of drinking water (i.e., 0.15 L-equivalent per day based on the daily water intake rate of 1.5 L/day typically used in Health Canada assessments). Based on the route-specific exposure parameters (i.e., area of skin exposed, effective skin permeability coefficient [K(p)], and air to water concentration ratio during use conditions [F(air-water)], breathing rate, duration of contact, and fraction absorbed), it was determined that for DWCs with K(p) less than 0.024 cm/hr and F(air - water) less than 0.0063, the dermal and inhalation routes during showering or bathing are unlikely to contribute significantly to the total dose. For DWCs with K(p) value equal to or greater than 0.025 cm/hr, dermal notation is implied, and as such, tier 2 calculation of L-equivalent associated with dermal exposure needs to be performed. Similarly, for DWCs with F(air-water) greater than 0.00063, inhalation notation is implied, and detailed evaluation of the L-equivalent associated with inhalation exposure (i.e., tier 2) is suggested. In general, data from human volunteer studies, observational measurements, and targeted modeling studies are useful for deriving L-equivalents, reflective of the magnitude of dose received via dermal and inhalation routes relative to the oral route. However, in resource-limited situations, these approaches can be integrated within a 2-tier approach for prioritizing and providing quantitative evaluations of the relevance of dermal and inhalation routes for developing exposure guidelines for DWCs.
There was made the characterization of the health risk for workers' of pulp and paper industry, under the simultaneous effects of chemicals in the residential and working area. The main adverse effect of chemicals that pollute the air and work environment is related with the impact on the respiratory system. Under the successive exposure (ambient air--air in the workplace) in the adult population working at the Arkhangelsk Pulp and Paper Mill, the risk of occurrence of respiratory diseases (HI = 18.5) and individual carcinogenic risk (CR = 9.7 x 10(-3)) have been rated as high and constitute 86-99% of the total risk.
Increasing evidence links air pollution to the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) prevalence and exposure to traffic-related air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], fine particulate matter [PM2.5], and ozone [O3]) in a population of susceptible subjects in Toronto. Local (NO2) exposures were modeled using land use regression based on extensive field monitoring. Regional exposures (PM2.5, O3) were modeled as confounders using inverse distance weighted interpolation based on government monitoring data. The study sample consisted of 2360 patients referred during 1992 to 1999 to a pulmonary clinic at the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to diagnose or manage a respiratory complaint. IHD status was determined by clinical database linkages (ICD-9-CM 412-414). The association between IHD and air pollutants was assessed with a modified Poisson regression resulting in relative risk estimates. Confounding was controlled with individual and neighborhood-level covariates. After adjusting for multiple covariates, NO2 was significantly associated with increased IHD risk, relative risk (RR) = 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 1.47). Subjects living near major roads and highways had a trend toward an elevated risk of IHD, RR = 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.18). Regional PM2.5 and O3 were not associated with risk of IHD.
In this study, the authors assessed the impact of particulate air pollution on first respiratory hospitalization. Study subjects were children less than 3 years of age living in Vancouver, British Columbia, who had their first hospitalization as a result of any respiratory disease (ICD-9 codes 460-519) during the period from June 1, 1995, to March 31, 1999. The authors used logistic regression to estimate the associations between ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and first hospitalization. The adjusted odds ratios for first respiratory hospitalization associated with mean and maximal PM10-2.5 with a lag of 3 days were 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.28) and 1.13 (1.00, 1.27). After adjustment for gaseous pollutants, the corresponding odds ratios were 1.22 (1.02, 1.48) and 1.14 (0.99, 1.32). The data indicated the possibility of harmful effects from coarse PM on first hospitalization for respiratory disease in early childhood.
Fungal spores can be transported globally in clouds of desert dust. Many species of fungi (commonly known as molds) and bacteria--including some that are human pathogens--have characteristics suited to long-range atmospheric transport. Dust from the African desert can affect air quality in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. Asian desert dust can affect air quality in Asia, the Arctic, North America, and Europe. Atmospheric exposure to mold-carrying desert dust may affect human health directly through allergic induction of respiratory stress. In addition, mold spores within these dust clouds may seed downwind ecosystems in both outdoor and indoor environments.
This study attempted to develop and evaluate a challenge test for diagnosing allergic asthma and rhinitis due to cellulase.
Challenge tests in a chamber were performed on 11 persons sensitized to cellulase. Four different enzyme-lactose mixtures, starting from a 0.03% mixture, were used. The enzyme dust was generated from a dry enzyme preparation mixed with lactose powder, using pressurized air. The cellulase concentration in the air was measured with an immunochemical method.
Nasal, pharyngeal, or bronchial symptoms could be elicited at cellulase air concentrations of 1 to 1300 microg/m3. A dose-response relationship was observed for symptoms in repeated challenge tests with increasing concentrations of cellulase. For 2 persons skin symptoms could also be reproduced.
The challenge method proved to be a practical means with which to simulate conditions at the worksite and elicit the specific respiratory symptoms of the patients.