Objective: A survey was conducted to explore worries, fears and preparedness relating to the recollected experience of having an induced abortion. Methods: The Web-based survey was carried out in Sweden among 185 women. Respondents answered open-ended questions and gave retrospective self-reported ratings about their abortion-related worries, fears, preparedness and satisfaction with information obtained from health professionals and the Web. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Worries and fears included the abortion process, physical reactions and psychosocial aspects. The abortion was associated with unexpected events, including the abortion process, poor health professional treatment and support, and side effects and complications. Respondents described a lack of preparatory information, leading to uncertainties due to insufficient information. Many searched for Web-based information, but respondents experienced difficulties finding high-quality sources. Respondents also recounted that the preparatory information received did not reflect the actual abortion experience. Conclusion: There is room for improvement with regard to informing, preparing and supporting women who seek an abortion. The results emphasise the importance of health professionals' giving sufficient preparatory information to enable preparedness and lessen the impact of possible unexpected events. There is a need for the development of a trustworthy Web-based service that contains honest and high-quality information.
The rise of social media proved to be a fertile ground for the expansion of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-denialist movement (in the form of online communities). While there is substantial literature devoted to disproving AIDS-denialist views, there is a lack of studies exploring AIDS-denialists online communities that interact with an external environment.
We explored three research areas: (1) reasons for newcomers to come to an AIDS-denialist community, (2) the patterns of interactions of the community with the newcomers, and (3) rhetorical strategies that denialists use for persuasion in the veracity of their views.
We studied the largest AIDS-denialist community on one of the most popular social networking services in Russia. We used netnography as a method for collecting data for qualitative analysis and observed the community for 9 months (at least 2-3 times a week). While doing netnography, we periodically downloaded community discussions. In total, we downloaded 4821 posts and comments for analysis. Grounded theory approach was used for data analysis.
Most users came to the community for the following reasons: their stories did not fit the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression translated by popular medical discourse, health problems, concern about HIV-positive tests, and desire to dissuade community members from false AIDS beliefs. On the basis of strength in AIDS-denialist beliefs, we constructed a typology of the newcomers consisting of three ideal-typical groups: (1) convinced: those who already had become denialists before coming to the group, (2) doubters: those who were undecided about the truth of either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) science theory or AIDS-denialist theory, and (3) orthodox: those who openly held HIV science views. Reception of a newcomer mainly depended on the newcomer's belief status. Reception was very warm for the convinced, cold or slightly hostile for the doubters, and extremely hostile or derisive for the orthodox. We identified seven main rhetorical strategies of persuasion used by the denialists on the "undecided".
Contrary to the widespread public health depiction of AIDS denialists as totally irrational, our study suggests that some of those who become AIDS denialists have sufficiently reasonable grounds to suspect that "something is wrong" with scientific theory, because their personal experience contradicts the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression. Odd and inexplicable practices of some AIDS centers only fuel these people's suspicions. We can conclude that public health practitioners' practices may play a role in generating AIDS-denialist sentiments. In interactions with the newcomers, the experienced community members highlighted the importance of personal autonomy and freedom of choice in decision making consistent with the consumerist ideology of health care. The study findings suggest that health care workers should change a one-size-fits-all mode of counseling for a more complex and patient-tailored approach, allowing for diversity of disease progression scenarios and scientific uncertainty.
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The internet is being widely used for seeking health information. However, there is no consensus on the association between health information seeking on the internet and the use of health care services.
We examined the association between health information seeking via the internet and physician visits. In addition, we investigated the association between online health information seeking and the decisions to visit and not to visit a physician.
We used the cross-sectional electronic health (eHealth) data of 18,197 participants from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study (Tromsø 7). The participants were aged =40 years and living in Tromsø, Norway. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between online health information seeking and physician visits, the decision to visit a physician, and the decision not to visit a physician, with adjustment for the demographic status, socioeconomic status, and health status of the participants.
The use of Web search engines was associated with a physician visit. However, the association was moderated by age, and the OR decreased as age increased. The ORs for the use of Web search engines were 1.99 (95% CI 1.94-2.02) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.12) at ages 40 and 80 years, respectively. The decision to visit a physician was associated with the use of Web search engines (OR 2.95, 95% CI 2.03-4.46), video search engines (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.21-1.70), and health apps (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.42). The association between social media use and the decision to visit a physician was moderated by gender. Women who used social media had 1.42 (95% CI 1.31-1.55) times higher odds of deciding to visit a physician, whereas the decision to visit a physician was not different between men who used social media and those who did not use social media. Conversely, the decision not to visit a physician was associated with the use of Web search engines (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.92-4.18), video search engines (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51), social media (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49), and health apps (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35).
Health information found on the internet was positively associated with both the decision to visit a physician and the decision not to visit a physician. However, the association of health information seeking with the decision to visit a physician was slightly stronger than the association with the decision not to visit a physician. This could imply that the use of eHealth services is associated with a resultant increase in physician visits. In summary, our findings suggest that the internet serves as a supplement to health care services rather than as a replacement.
This study undertook a qualitative exploration of an operational definition of health literacy and an examination of quantitative measures of health literacy skills. We interviewed 229 older Canadian adults. First we engaged them in open-ended discussions about their search for information on a self-selected health topic. Next we administered nine self-report items on health literacy skills, and then task-performance items. Task-performance questions were based on two published reading passages on five levels of difficulty to measure 'understanding' of health-related material. The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) was also administered as the comparison for criterion-related validity. Our open-ended questions elicited responses about the processes that people undergo when they attempt to access, understand, appraise and communicate health information. Qualitative findings revealed complexities in participants' interpretation of the meaning of all four health literacy skills. These descriptive findings add new knowledge about health literacy as a construct. Participants agreed with most of the self-report statements, thus indicating high belief in their own health literacy. REALM scores ranged from 45 to 66 with an average of 65 and standard deviation of 2.5. Quantitative scores on the reading passages were modestly correlated with scores on the REALM. The sum scale of self-report items, however, did not correlate with task-performance items, suggesting that the different types of items may not be measuring the same construct. We suggest that self-report items need more development and validation. Our study makes a contribution in exploring the complexities of measuring health literacy skills for general health contexts.
The aim was to explore how the behaviour of consumers changed while they selected food in a supermarket environment after they were reminded about weight management. This investigation was carried out from the perspective of selection criteria, reading of package labels, nutritional quality of the products selected and time taken to select a product.
The subjects, who were actively watching their weight, participated in two consecutive tasks in a supermarket. They were given a shopping list of eleven food categories and asked to think aloud while selecting from each category a product they usually buy and a product they would use for weight management. The data (n 792 selections) were collected through interviews and a verbal analysis protocol combined with wireless audio-visual observation.
Thirty-six consumers were recruited from a sample of 367 supermarket customers.
The subjects' behaviour changed radically after they were reminded about weight management. In the first selection, taste and familiarity were the main food selection criteria while in the latter selection the energy/fat content predominated. Consequently, the nutritional quality of products improved greatly because subjects read package labels twice as much in the latter selection. The time taken to select a product increased significantly, on average, from 23 (sd 10) to 60 (sd 51) s/product (P = 0·000).
Only by reminding consumers about weight management was there a significant impact on their food selection behaviour. Marketing communication should be developed which quickly and easily promotes consumers' awareness of healthy food in supermarkets.
Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.
Department of Community Medicine, The National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NAFKAM), UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Sykehusveien 21, 9037, Tromsø, Norway. email@example.com.
Both conventional health care providers and complementary therapists treat cancer patients. To provide effective treatment, both types of providers should to be familiar with their own as well as alternative types of treatment. Our aim was to compare how conventional health care providers (oncology doctors, oncology nurses, family physicians) and complementary therapists (acupuncturists, reflexologists, massage therapists) seek information about conventional and complementary cancer treatments.
This analysis was conducted on the basis of feedback from 466 participants. We used self-administered questionnaires in a cross-sectional study.
The majority of the medical doctors (96%) searched for evidence-based information regarding conventional cancer treatments. They gathered this information mostly from guidelines, which is considered best practice and is expected from Norwegian health personnel. Eighty-one percent of the nurses gather this information from evidence based resources such as UpToDate. Colleagues were asked for information by 58% of the medical doctors and 64% of the nurses. Moreover, 50% of the medical doctors and 57% of the nurses searched for evidence-based information about complementary cancer modalities. The acupuncturists gathered evidence-based information for both conventional (79%) and complementary (77%) modalities, followed by the reflexologists (54 and 54%, respectively) and massage therapists (54 and 52%, respectively). Nearly half of the acupuncturist (49%) asked a colleague for information.
To provide safe cancer care, it is important that advice about complementary modalities is based on current and evidence-based evaluations. The majority of the medical doctors and nurses in this study sought information according to evidence-based medicine regarding conventional cancer treatments, and about half of them gathered evidence-based information about complementary cancer modalities. This was also true for the complementary therapists as they gathered information about complementary and conventional treatments from evidence-based evaluations. This demonstrates that since the term evidence-based medicine was first introduced in 1991, the approach has grown extensively and both conventional and complementary providers use this approach to seek information.
Depression and psychosis are severe diseases with onset in adolescence.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between an at-risk status of psychosis and depression symptoms in adolescents.
The data were collected by an early intervention team in Finland. The PROD screen was used to assess the risk of psychosis, and Beck Depression Inventory-II was used as a measurement to assess the level of depression symptoms. Of 203 help-seeking respondents, 66 were classified as at-risk for psychosis, and 137 respondents were other help-seekers. The mean age of the subjects was 15.3 years.
Subjects at-risk had significantly poorer scores in total scores for depression (p ?
The aim of this study was to describe district nurses' (DNs') experiences of their knowledge development in wound management when treating patients with different types of wounds at healthcare centers.
In primary healthcare, DNs are mainly responsible for wound management. Previous research has focused on DNs' level of expertise regarding wound management, mostly based on quantitative studies. An unanswered question concerns DNs' knowledge development in wound management. The present study therefore intends to broaden understanding and to provide deeper knowledge in regard to the DNs' experiences of their knowledge development when treating patients with wounds.
A qualitative descriptive design was used. Subjects were a purposeful sample of 16 DNs from eight healthcare centers in a metropolitan area in Stockholm, Sweden. The study was conducted with qualitative interviews and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data.
The content analysis resulted in three categories and 11 sub-categories. The first category, 'ongoing learning by experience,' was based on experiences of learning alongside clinical practice. The second category 'searching for information,' consisted of various channels for obtaining information. The third category, 'lacking organizational support,' consisted of experiences related to the DNs' work organization, which hindered their development in wound care knowledge.
The DNs experienced that they were in a constant state of learning and obtained their wound care knowledge to a great extent through practical work, from their colleagues as well as from various companies. A lack of organizational structures and support from staff management made it difficult for DNs to develop their knowledge and skills in wound management, which can lead to inadequate wound management.
To explore the need for information and what information was actually received following prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect, in a country where termination of pregnancy beyond 22?weeks of gestation is not easily possible because of legal constraints.
Twenty-six Swedish-speaking pregnant women (n?=?14) and partners (n?=?12) were consecutively recruited for semi-structured telephone interviews following the prenatal diagnosis of a congenital heart defect. Data were analyzed using content analysis.
Although high satisfaction with the specialist information was described, the information was considered overwhelming and complex. Objective, honest, and detailed information about multiple subjects were needed, delivered repeatedly, and supplemented by written information/illustrations. Eighteen respondents had used the Internet to search for information and identified issues involving searching difficulties, low quality, and that it was too complex, insufficient, or unspecific. Those who terminated their pregnancy criticized that there was a lack of information about termination of pregnancy, both from health professionals and online sources, resulting in unanswered questions and unpreparedness.